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Title: Mid-Infrared vibrational spectra of discrete acetone-ligated cerium hydroxide cations

Abstract

Cerium (III) hydroxy reactive sites are responsible for several important heterogeneous catalysis processes, and understanding the reaction chemistry of substrate molecules like CO, H2O, and CH3OH as they occur in heterogeneous media is a challenging task. We report here the first infrared spectra of model gas-phase cerium complexes and use the results as a benchmark to assist evaluation of the accuracy of ab initio calculations. Complexes containing [CeOH]2+ ligated by three- and four-acetone molecules were generated by electrospray ionization and characterized using wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The C=O stretching frequency for the [CeOH(acetone)4]2+ species appeared at 1650 cm-1 and was red-shifted by 90 cm-1 compared to unligated acetone. The magnitude of this shift for the carbonyl frequency was even greater for the [CeOH(acetone)3]2+ complex: the IRMPD peak consisted of two dissociation channels, an initial elimination of acetone at 1635 cm-1, and elimination of acetone accompanied by a serial charge separation producing [CeO(acetone)]+ at 1599 cm-1, with the overall frequency centered at 1616 cm-1. The increasing red shift observed as the number of acetone ligands decreases from four to three is consistent with transfer of more electron density per ligand in the less coordinated complexes. The lower frequency measuredmore » for the elimination/charge separation process is likely due to anharmonicity resulting from population of higher vibrational states. The C-C stretching frequency in the complexes is also influenced by coordination to the metal: it is blue-shifted compared to bare acetone, indicating a slight strengthening of the C-C bond in the complex, with the intensity of the absorption decreasing with decreasing ligation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using three different functionals (LDA, B3LYP, and PBE0) are used to predict the infrared spectra of the complexes. Calculated frequencies for the carbonyl stretch are within 40 cm-1 of the IRMPD of the three-acetone complex measured using the single acetone loss, and within 60 cm-1 of the measurement for the four-acetone complexes. The B3LYP and LDA functionals provided the best agreement with the measured spectra. The C-C stretching frequencies calculated using B3LYP are higher in energy than the measured values by ~ 30 cm-1, and reproduce the observed trend which shows that the C-C stretching frequency decreases with increasing ligation. Agreement between C-C frequency and calculation was not as good using the LDA functional, but still within 70 cm-1. The results provide an evaluation of changes in the acceptor properties of the metal center as ligands are added, and of the utility of DFT for modeling f-block coordination complexes.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
912408
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-06-01146
Journal ID: ISSN 1463-9076; TRN: US200801%%840
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-99ID-13727
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 - INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ACETONE; CARBONYLS; CATIONS; CERIUM; CERIUM COMPLEXES; CERIUM HYDROXIDES; ELECTRON DENSITY; HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS; INFRARED SPECTRA; IONIZATION; RED SHIFT; SPECTRA; VIBRATIONAL STATES; vibrational spectra, cerium

Citation Formats

G. S. Groenewold, A. K. Gianotto, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Van Stipdonk, J. Oomens, N. Polfer, W. A. De JOng, and M. E. McIllwain. Mid-Infrared vibrational spectra of discrete acetone-ligated cerium hydroxide cations. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1039/b613029a.
G. S. Groenewold, A. K. Gianotto, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Van Stipdonk, J. Oomens, N. Polfer, W. A. De JOng, & M. E. McIllwain. Mid-Infrared vibrational spectra of discrete acetone-ligated cerium hydroxide cations. United States. doi:10.1039/b613029a.
G. S. Groenewold, A. K. Gianotto, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Van Stipdonk, J. Oomens, N. Polfer, W. A. De JOng, and M. E. McIllwain. Thu . "Mid-Infrared vibrational spectra of discrete acetone-ligated cerium hydroxide cations". United States. doi:10.1039/b613029a.
@article{osti_912408,
title = {Mid-Infrared vibrational spectra of discrete acetone-ligated cerium hydroxide cations},
author = {G. S. Groenewold and A. K. Gianotto and K. C. Cossel and M. J. Van Stipdonk and J. Oomens and N. Polfer and W. A. De JOng and M. E. McIllwain},
abstractNote = {Cerium (III) hydroxy reactive sites are responsible for several important heterogeneous catalysis processes, and understanding the reaction chemistry of substrate molecules like CO, H2O, and CH3OH as they occur in heterogeneous media is a challenging task. We report here the first infrared spectra of model gas-phase cerium complexes and use the results as a benchmark to assist evaluation of the accuracy of ab initio calculations. Complexes containing [CeOH]2+ ligated by three- and four-acetone molecules were generated by electrospray ionization and characterized using wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The C=O stretching frequency for the [CeOH(acetone)4]2+ species appeared at 1650 cm-1 and was red-shifted by 90 cm-1 compared to unligated acetone. The magnitude of this shift for the carbonyl frequency was even greater for the [CeOH(acetone)3]2+ complex: the IRMPD peak consisted of two dissociation channels, an initial elimination of acetone at 1635 cm-1, and elimination of acetone accompanied by a serial charge separation producing [CeO(acetone)]+ at 1599 cm-1, with the overall frequency centered at 1616 cm-1. The increasing red shift observed as the number of acetone ligands decreases from four to three is consistent with transfer of more electron density per ligand in the less coordinated complexes. The lower frequency measured for the elimination/charge separation process is likely due to anharmonicity resulting from population of higher vibrational states. The C-C stretching frequency in the complexes is also influenced by coordination to the metal: it is blue-shifted compared to bare acetone, indicating a slight strengthening of the C-C bond in the complex, with the intensity of the absorption decreasing with decreasing ligation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using three different functionals (LDA, B3LYP, and PBE0) are used to predict the infrared spectra of the complexes. Calculated frequencies for the carbonyl stretch are within 40 cm-1 of the IRMPD of the three-acetone complex measured using the single acetone loss, and within 60 cm-1 of the measurement for the four-acetone complexes. The B3LYP and LDA functionals provided the best agreement with the measured spectra. The C-C stretching frequencies calculated using B3LYP are higher in energy than the measured values by ~ 30 cm-1, and reproduce the observed trend which shows that the C-C stretching frequency decreases with increasing ligation. Agreement between C-C frequency and calculation was not as good using the LDA functional, but still within 70 cm-1. The results provide an evaluation of changes in the acceptor properties of the metal center as ligands are added, and of the utility of DFT for modeling f-block coordination complexes.},
doi = {10.1039/b613029a},
journal = {Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Cerium (III) hydroxy reactive sites are responsible for several important heterogeneous catalysis processes, and understanding the reaction chemistry of substrate molecules like CO, H2O, and CH3OH as they occur in heterogeneous media is a challenging task. We report here the first infrared spectra of model gas-phase cerium complexes and use the results as a benchmark to assist evaluation of the accuracy of ab initio calculations. Complexes containing [CeOH]2+ ligated by three- and four-acetone molecules were generated by electrospray ionization and characterized using wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The C=O stretching frequency for the [CeOH(acetone)4]2+ species appeared at 1650 cm-1more » and was red-shifted by 90 cm-1 compared to unligated acetone. The magnitude of this shift for the carbonyl frequency was even greater for the [CeOH(acetone)3]2+ complex: the IRMPD peak consisted of two dissociation channels, an initial elimination of acetone at 1635 cm-1, and elimination of acetone accompanied by a serial charge separation producing [CeO(acetone)]+ at 1599 cm-1, with the overall frequency centered at 1616 cm-1. The increasing red shift observed as the number of acetone ligands decreases from four to three is consistent with transfer of more electron density per ligand in the less coordinated complexes. The lower frequency measured for the elimination/charge separation process is likely due to anharmonicity resulting from population of higher vibrational states. The C-C stretching frequency in the complexes is also influenced by coordination to the metal: it is blue-shifted compared to bare acetone, indicating a slight strengthening of the C-C bond in the complex, with the intensity of the absorption decreasing with decreasing ligation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using three different functionals (LDA, B3LYP, and PBE0) are used to predict the infrared spectra of the complexes. Calculated frequencies for the carbonyl stretch are within 40 cm-1 of the IRMPD of the three-acetone complex measured using the single acetone loss, and within 60 cm-1 of the measurement for the four-acetone complexes. The B3LYP and LDA functionals provided the best agreement with the measured spectra. The C-C stretching frequencies calculated using B3LYP are higher in energy than the measured values by ~ 30 cm-1, and reproduce the observed trend which shows that the C-C stretching frequency decreases with increasing ligation. Agreement between C-C frequency and calculation was not as good using the LDA functional, but still within 70 cm-1. The results provide an evaluation of changes in the acceptor properties of the metal center as ligands are added, and of the utility of DFT for modeling f-block coordination complexes.« less
  • Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and crotonaldehyde are chemical isomers; both are also important species in tropospheric chemistry. We report quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of crotonaldehyde and MVK vapors over the 540-6500 cm-1 range. Vibrational assignments of all fundamental modes are made for both molecules based on far- and mid-infrared vapor-phase spectra, liquid Raman spectra, along with density functional theory and ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical models (W1BD). Theoretical results indicate that at room temperature the crotonaldehyde equilibrium mixture is approximately 97% s-trans and only 3% s-cis conformer. Nearly all observed bands are thus associated with the s-transmore » conformer, but a few appear to be uniquely associated the s-cis conformer, notably ν16c at 730.90 cm-1, which displays a substantial intensity increase with temperature (62% upon going from 5 to 50 oC). The intensity of the corresponding mode of the s-trans conformer decreases with temperature. Under the same conditions, the MVK equilibrium mixture is approximately 69% s-trans conformer and 31% s-cis. W1BD calculations indicate that for MVK this is one of those (rare) cases where there are comparable populations of both conformers, ~doubling the number of observed bands and exacerbating the vibrational assignments. We uniquely assign the bands associated with both the MVK s-cis conformer as well as those of the s-trans, thus completing the vibrational analyses of both conformers from the same set of experimental spectra. Integrated band intensities are reported for both molecules along with global warming potential values. Using the quantitative IR data, potential bands for atmospheric monitoring are also discussed.« less
  • We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature.more » We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential, suggesting the possibility of a compact energy source and stratified interstellar medium in their nuclei. We confirm a strong correlation between the sum of the [Ne II]{sub 12.8{sub μm}} and [Ne III]{sub 15.5{sub μm}} emission, as well as [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, with both the infrared luminosity and the 24 μm warm dust emission measured from the spectra, consistent with all three lines tracing ongoing star formation. Finally, we find no correlation between the hardness of the radiation field or the emission-line width and the ratio of the total infrared to 8 μm emission (IR8), a measure of the strength of the starburst and the distance of the LIRGs from the star-forming main sequence. This may be a function of the fact that the infrared luminosity and the mid-infrared fine-structure lines are sensitive to different timescales over the starburst, or that IR8 is more sensitive to the geometry of the region emitting the warm dust than the radiation field producing the H II region emission.« less
  • Gas-phase complexes of the formula [UO2(lig)]+ (lig = acetone (aco) or dimethylsulfoxide (dmso)) were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and studied by tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry to determine the general effect of ligand charge donation on the reactivity of UO2+ with respect to water and dioxygen. The original hypothesis that addition of O2 is enhanced by strong s-donor ligands bound to UO2+ is supported by results from competitive collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments, which show near exclusive loss of H2O from [UO2(dmso)(H2O)(O2)]+, whereas both H2O and O2 are eliminated from the corresponding [UO2(aco)(H2O)(O2)]+ species. Ligand-addition reaction rates were investigated by monitoringmore » precursor and product ion intensities as a function of ion storage time in the ion-trap mass spectrometer: these experiments suggest that the association of dioxygen to the UO2+ complex is enhanced when the more basic dmso ligand was coordinated to the metal complex. Conversely, addition of H2O is favored for the analogous complex ion that contains an aco ligand. Experimental rate measurements are supported by density function theory calculations of relative energies, which show stronger bonds between UO2+ and O2 when dmso is the coordinating ligand, whereas bonds to H2O are stronger for the aco complex.« less
  • Gas-phase complexes of the formula [UO2(lig)]+ (lig=acetone (aco) or dimethylsulfoxide (dmso)) were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and studied by tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry to determine the general effect of ligand charge donation on the reactivity of UO2+ with respect to water and dioxygen. The original hypothesis that addition of O2 is enhanced by strong σ-donor ligands bound to UO2+ is supported by results from competitive collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments, which show near exclusive loss of H2O from [UO2(dmso)(H2O)(O2)]+, while both H2O and O2 are eliminated from the corresponding [UO2(aco)(H2O)(O2)]+ species. Ligand-addition reaction rates were investigated by monitoring precursor andmore » product ion intensities as a function of ion storage time in the ion-trap mass spectrometer: these experiments suggest that the association of dioxygen to the UO2+ complex is enhanced when the more basic dmso ligand was coordinated to the metal complex. Conversely, addition of H2O is favored for the analogous complex ion that contains an aco ligand. Experimental rate measurements are supported by density function theory calculations of relative energies, which show stronger bonds between UO2+ and O2 when dmso is the coordinating ligand, while bonds to H2O are stronger for the aco complex.« less