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Title: Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

Abstract

The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The NSNFP, conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is evaluating final disposition of SNF in the DOE complex. While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. Evaluations of treatment needs and options have been previously prepared, and further evaluations are ongoing activities in the DOE-EM NSNFP. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W.more » Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. One of the major issues associated with SNF treatment is final disposition of treatment products and associated waste streams. During conventional SNF treatment, various chemicals are added that may increase the product and waste stream masses and volumes that are eventually handled, stored, and dispositioned. Thus, when assessing whether or not to treat SNF, the costs associated with final disposition must be determined, in addition to the technical issues and costs associated with the treatment process itself. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products tofinal disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Laboratory (INL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
911405
Report Number(s):
INEEL/CON-98-00882
TRN: US0704556
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-99ID-13727
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Waste Management '99,Tucson, AZ,02/28/1999,03/04/1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99 - GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; BREAKDOWN; CONSTRUCTION; DESIGN; DISSOLUTION; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; EVALUATION; LIFE-CYCLE COST; MANAGEMENT; NUCLEAR FUELS; PLANNING; PRODUCTION; US NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTES; SPENT FUELS; DOE-EM; INEEL; LMITCO; NSNFP; SNF

Citation Formats

Ramer, Ronald James, Adams, James Paul, Rynearson, Michael Ardel, and Dahl, Christian Adam. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel. United States: N. p., 1999. Web.
Ramer, Ronald James, Adams, James Paul, Rynearson, Michael Ardel, & Dahl, Christian Adam. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel. United States.
Ramer, Ronald James, Adams, James Paul, Rynearson, Michael Ardel, and Dahl, Christian Adam. 1999. "Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/911405.
@article{osti_911405,
title = {Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel},
author = {Ramer, Ronald James and Adams, James Paul and Rynearson, Michael Ardel and Dahl, Christian Adam},
abstractNote = {The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The NSNFP, conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is evaluating final disposition of SNF in the DOE complex. While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. Evaluations of treatment needs and options have been previously prepared, and further evaluations are ongoing activities in the DOE-EM NSNFP. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. One of the major issues associated with SNF treatment is final disposition of treatment products and associated waste streams. During conventional SNF treatment, various chemicals are added that may increase the product and waste stream masses and volumes that are eventually handled, stored, and dispositioned. Thus, when assessing whether or not to treat SNF, the costs associated with final disposition must be determined, in addition to the technical issues and costs associated with the treatment process itself. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products tofinal disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1999,
month = 3
}

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  • The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planningmore » option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.« less
  • Part of the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory may require some type of treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The current focus for much of this spent nuclear fuel is the electrometallurgical treatment process under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Potential flowsheets for this treatment process are presented. Deployment of the process for the treatment of the spent nuclear fuel requires evaluation to determine the spent nuclear fuel program need for treatment and compatibility of the spent nuclear fuel with the process. The evaluation of need includes considerations of cost, technical feasibility, processmore » material disposition, and schedule to treat a proposed fuel. A siting evaluation methodology has been developed to account for these variables. A work breakdown structure is proposed to gather life-cycle cost information to allow evaluation of alternative siting strategies on a similar basis. The evaluation methodology, while created specifically for the electrometallurgical evaluation, has been written such that it could be applied to any potential treatment process that is a disposition option for spent nuclear fuel. Future work to complete the evaluation of the process for electrometallurgical treatment is discussed.« less
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination is presented of the microstructure of a ceramic waste form developed at Argonne National Lab - West for immobilization of actinides and fission products present in an electrorefiner salt. The material is produced by occluding the salt in zeolite granules, followed by hot isostatic pressing of the occluded zeolite in a mixture with a borosilicate glass. The paper presents results from a cold surrogate ceramic waste form, as well as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu loaded samples.
  • Argonne is developing a method to treat spent nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrorefiner. Wastes from this treatment will be converted into metal and mineral forms for geologic disposal. A glass-bonded zeolite is being developed to serve as the mineral waste form that will contain the fission products that accumulate in the electrorefiner salt. Fission products are ion exchanged from the salt into the zeolite A structure. The crystal structure of the zeolite after ion exchange is filled with salt ions. The salt-loaded zeolite A is mixed with glass frit and hot pressed. During hot pressing, the zeolite Amore » may be converted to sodalite which also retains the waste salt. The glass-bonded zeolite is leach resistant. MCC-1 testing has shown that it has a release rate below 1 g/(m{sup 2}day) for all elements.« less
  • The major component of the DOE spent nuclear fuel inventory is the metallic fuel stored at the Hanford site in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. Most of this fuel was discharged from the N-Reactor; a small part of the inventory is fuel from the early Hanford production reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to remove these fuels from the spent fuel storage pools in which they are presently stored, dry them, and place them in interim storage at a location at the Hanford site that is far removed from the Columbia River. It is notmore » yet certain that these fuels will be acceptable for disposal in a mined geologic repository without further treatment, due to their potential pyrophoric character. A practical method for treatment of the Hanford metallic spent fuel, based on an electrorefining process, has been developed and has been demonstrated with unirradiated N-Reactor fuel and with simulated single-pass reactor (SPR) spent fuel. The process can be operated with any desired throughput rates; being a batch process, it is simply a matter of setting the size of the electrorefiner modules and the number of such modules. A single module, prototypic of a production-scale module, has been fabricated and testing is in progress at a throughput rate of 150 kg (heavy metal) per day. The envisioned production version would incorporate additional anode baskets and cathode tubes and provide a throughput rate of 333 kgHM/day. A system with four of these modules would permit treatment of Hanford metallic fuels at a rate of at least 250 metric tons per year.« less