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Title: Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants

Abstract

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtainedmore » through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Environmental Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
909415
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/63581-1
TRN: US200821%%330
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-03ER63581
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CLONING; CONTAMINATION; DEHALOGENATION; ENZYMES; GENES; MICROORGANISMS; POLLUTANTS; POLLUTION; RADIOISOTOPES; REMOVAL; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SILICATES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SYNTHESIS; TRANSFORMATIONS; WATER; Single-enzyme nanoparticles; biocatalysis; dehalogenation

Citation Formats

Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, and Jungbae Kim. Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/909415.
Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, & Jungbae Kim. Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants. United States. doi:10.2172/909415.
Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, and Jungbae Kim. Mon . "Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants". United States. doi:10.2172/909415. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/909415.
@article{osti_909415,
title = {Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants},
author = {Jonathan S. Dordick and Jay Grate and Jungbae Kim},
abstractNote = {The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtained through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.},
doi = {10.2172/909415},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Feb 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

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