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Title: Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants

Abstract

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtainedmore » through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Environmental Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
909415
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/63581-1
TRN: US200821%%330
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-03ER63581
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CLONING; CONTAMINATION; DEHALOGENATION; ENZYMES; GENES; MICROORGANISMS; POLLUTANTS; POLLUTION; RADIOISOTOPES; REMOVAL; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SILICATES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SYNTHESIS; TRANSFORMATIONS; WATER; Single-enzyme nanoparticles; biocatalysis; dehalogenation

Citation Formats

Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, and Jungbae Kim. Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/909415.
Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, & Jungbae Kim. Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants. United States. doi:10.2172/909415.
Jonathan S. Dordick, Jay Grate, and Jungbae Kim. Mon . "Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants". United States. doi:10.2172/909415. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/909415.
@article{osti_909415,
title = {Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface Contaminants},
author = {Jonathan S. Dordick and Jay Grate and Jungbae Kim},
abstractNote = {The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation. Research at Rensselaer focused on the development of haloalkane dehalogenase as a critical enzyme in the dehalogenation of contaminated materials (ultimately trichloroethylene and related pollutants). A combination of bioinformatic investigation and experimental work was performed. The bioinformatics was focused on identifying a range of dehalogenase enzymes that could be obtained from the known proteomes of major microorganisms. This work identified several candidate enzymes that could be obtained through relatively straightforward gene cloning and expression approaches. The experimental work focused on the isolation of haloalkane dehalogenase from a Xanthobacter species followed by incorporating the enzyme into silicates to form biocatalytic silicates. These are the precursors of SENs. At the conclusion of the study, dehalogenase was incorporated into SENs, although the loading was low. This work supported a single Ph.D. student (Ms. Philippa Reeder) for two years. The project ended prior to her being able to perform substantive bioinformatics efforts that would identify more promising dehalogenase enzymes. The SEN synthesis, however, was demonstrated to be partially successful with dehalogenases. Further work would provide optimized dehalogenases in SENs for use in pollution remission.},
doi = {10.2172/909415},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Feb 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides;more » or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation.« less
  • Objectives of proposed research were to; Determine if the trajectories of microbial community composition and function following organic carbon amendment can be related to, and predicted by, key environmental determinants; Assess the relative importance of the characteristics of the indigenous microbial community, sediment, groundwater, and concentration of organic carbon amendment as the major determinants of microbial community functional response and bioremediation capacity; and Provide a fundamental understanding of the microbial community ecology underlying subsurface metal remediation requisite to successful application of accelerated remediation and long-term stewardship of DOE-IFC sites.
  • This document presents the development, calibration, and predictive results of a simulation study of fate and transport of waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) (which is hereafter referred to as the SDA simulation study). This report builds on incorporates a previous report that dealt only with the calibration of a flow model for simulation of water movement beneath the SDA (Magnuson and Sondrup 1996). The primary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to perform fate and transport calculations to support the IRA. A secondary purpose of the SDA simulation study was to be able to use themore » model to evaluate possible remediation strategies and their effects on flow and transport in the OU 7-13/14 feasibility study.« less
  • We have developed armored single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs), which dramatically stabilize a protease (a-chymotrypsin, CT) by surrounding each enzyme molecule with a porous composite organic/inorganic shell of less than a few nanometers thick. The armored enzymes show no decrease in CT activity at 30C for four days while free CT activity is rapidly reduced by orders of magnitude. The armored shell around CT is sufficiently thin and porous that it does not place any serious mass-transfer limitation on substrates. This unique approach will have a great impact in using enzymes in various fields.
  • The U.S. Navy Petroleum Office (NAVPETOFF) is developing future Navy petroleum sludge disposal and soil decontamination procedures. This project was conducted for NAVPETOFF to aid that development by evaluating the use of bacteria to eliminate petroleum hydrocarbons as a disposal or decontamination option. Electronic data base searchers, interviews with bioremediation researchers, and manual literature searches were conducted to collect information about microbial bioremediation from sources which postdate the 1984 amendments to RCRA. From that body of information, reports of field applications of microbial bioremediation on petroleum wastes or contaminants were set apart as the primary references for evaluation development. summariesmore » of reported microbial bioremediation methods were developed are presented. These summaries are introduced by a review of the biologic limits and processes of the microbes commonly used for bioremediation. The body of these summaries describes and illustrates their techniques. Each summary concludes with an evaluation in the form of a report of the method's effectiveness.« less