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Title: Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

Abstract

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

Inventors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Naperville, IL
  2. Downers Grove, IL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
908979
Patent Number(s):
7,205,072
Application Number:
10/699,484
Assignee:
The University of Chicago (Chicago, IL) CHO
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Kang, Sun-Ho, and Amine, Khalil. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Kang, Sun-Ho, & Amine, Khalil. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries. United States.
Kang, Sun-Ho, and Amine, Khalil. Tue . "Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/908979.
@article{osti_908979,
title = {Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries},
author = {Kang, Sun-Ho and Amine, Khalil},
abstractNote = {A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Patent:

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  • A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0
  • Layered Li(Ni{sub 0.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5-x}M'{sub 2x})O{sub 2} materials (M'=Co, Al, Ti; x=0, 0.025) were synthesized using a manganese-nickel hydroxide precursor, and the effect of dopants on the electrochemical properties was investigated. Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 exhibited a discharge capacity of 120 mAh/g in the voltage range of 2.8-4.3 V with a slight capacity fade up to 40 cycles (0.09% per cycle); by doping of 5 mol% Co, Al, and Ti, the discharge capacities increased to 140, 142, and 132 mAh/g, respectively, and almost no capacity fading was observed. The cathode material containing 5 mol% Co had the lowest impedance, 47 {Omega} cm2, while undoped,more » Ti-doped, and Al-doped materials had impedance of 64, 62, and 99 {Omega} cm2, respectively. Unlike the other dopants, cobalt was found to improve the electronic conductivity of the material. Further improvement in the impedance of these materials is needed to meet the requirement for powering hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, <35 {Omega} cm2). In all materials, structural transformation from a layered to a spinel structure was not observed during electrochemical cycling. Cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data suggested that Ni and Mn exist as Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} in the layered structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data showed that exothermic peaks of fully charged Li(Ni{sub 0.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5-xM'}{sub 2x})O{sub 2} appeared at higher temperature (270-290 C) than LiNiO{sub 2}-based cathode materials, which indicates that the thermal stability of Li(Ni{sub 0.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5-x}M'{sub 2x})O{sub 2} is better than those of LiNiO{sub 2}-based cathode materials.« less
  • Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} powders were prepared by a sol–gel method at 600 °C for 10 h. • LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} powder materials had well defined layer structure, and no impurities. • LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} crystallite size was reduced compared with those of LiNiO{sub 2}. • Li/LiPF{sub 6}/LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} cells were of high charge/discharge capacity, with columbic efficiency at 25 °C and 45 °C. • LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} good cyclic stability, rate capability and better 45 °C. - Abstract: Co-substituted LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub y}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2}more » cathode materials were synthesized by sol–gel method using aqueous solutions of metal nitrates and tartaric acid as chelating agent at 600 °C for 10 h. The structure and electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were characterized by using XRD, SEM, EDAX, TEM, cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD studies revealed a well defined layer structure and a linear variation of lattice parameters with the addition of lanthanum and lithium confirmed phase pure compounds in a rhombohedral structure. TEM and SEM analysis shows that LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} has smaller particle size and regular morphological structure with narrow size distribution than those of LiNiO{sub 2}. Variations of dual mixing and hexagonal ordering with the substituted elements have enhanced the charge/discharge capacities at both room (25 °C) and elevated temperatures (45 °C), respectively. LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} had high charge/discharge capacity, low irreversible capacity and better elevated temperature performance.« less