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Title: Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaO/Al2O3

Abstract

Phase changes in high temperature treated (> 900 °C) 8 or 20 wt% BaO supported on Al2O3 model lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts, induced by NO2 and/or H2O adsorption, were investigated with powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), solid state 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and NO2 Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments. After calcination in dry air at 1000 °C, the XRD and solid state 27Al MAS NMR results confirm that stable surface BaO and bulk BaAl2O4 phases are formed for 8 and 20 wt% BaO/Al2O3, respectively. Following NO2 adsorption over these thermally treated samples, no additional phase changes are observed based on XRD results. However, when water was added to the thermally aged samples after NO2 exposure, the formation of crystalline Ba(NO3)2 particles was observed in both samples. Solid state 27Al MAS NMR is shown to be a good technique for identifying the various Al species present in the materials during the processes studied here. NO2 TPD results demonstrate a significant loss of uptake for the 20 wt% model catalysts upon thermal treatment. However, the described phase transformations upon subsequent water treatment gave rise to the partial recovery of NOx uptake, demonstrating that such a watermore » treatment of thermally aged catalysts can provide a potential method to regenerate LNT materials.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
908943
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-50942
Journal ID: ISSN 0926-3373; ACBEE3; 19800; VT0401000; TRN: US200722%%825
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental; Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 3-4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; BARIUM NITRATES; SYNTHESIS; BARIUM OXIDES; NITROGEN DIOXIDE; PHASE STUDIES; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; CATALYSTS; REGENERATION; NOx storage; barium aluminate; barium nitrate; XRD; solid state 27Al MAS NMR; NO2 TPD; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Kim, Do Heui, Kwak, Ja Hun, Szanyi, Janos, Burton, Sarah D, and Peden, Charles HF. Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaO/Al2O3. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.10.024.
Kim, Do Heui, Kwak, Ja Hun, Szanyi, Janos, Burton, Sarah D, & Peden, Charles HF. Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaO/Al2O3. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.10.024.
Kim, Do Heui, Kwak, Ja Hun, Szanyi, Janos, Burton, Sarah D, and Peden, Charles HF. Fri . "Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaO/Al2O3". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.10.024.
@article{osti_908943,
title = {Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaO/Al2O3},
author = {Kim, Do Heui and Kwak, Ja Hun and Szanyi, Janos and Burton, Sarah D and Peden, Charles HF},
abstractNote = {Phase changes in high temperature treated (> 900 °C) 8 or 20 wt% BaO supported on Al2O3 model lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts, induced by NO2 and/or H2O adsorption, were investigated with powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), solid state 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and NO2 Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments. After calcination in dry air at 1000 °C, the XRD and solid state 27Al MAS NMR results confirm that stable surface BaO and bulk BaAl2O4 phases are formed for 8 and 20 wt% BaO/Al2O3, respectively. Following NO2 adsorption over these thermally treated samples, no additional phase changes are observed based on XRD results. However, when water was added to the thermally aged samples after NO2 exposure, the formation of crystalline Ba(NO3)2 particles was observed in both samples. Solid state 27Al MAS NMR is shown to be a good technique for identifying the various Al species present in the materials during the processes studied here. NO2 TPD results demonstrate a significant loss of uptake for the 20 wt% model catalysts upon thermal treatment. However, the described phase transformations upon subsequent water treatment gave rise to the partial recovery of NOx uptake, demonstrating that such a water treatment of thermally aged catalysts can provide a potential method to regenerate LNT materials.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.10.024},
journal = {Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental},
number = 3-4,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates, and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO3)2 particles. The conversion of surface to bulk Ba-nitrates is completely reversible, i.e. after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates re-convert to surface nitrates. NO2 exposure of a H2O-containing (wet) BaO/Al2O3 sample results in the formation ofmore » nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively, i.e. no surface nitrates form. After further exposure to NO2, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NOx taken up by the storage material is, however, essentially unaffected by the presence of water, regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO2 exposure. Based on the results of this study we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NOx uptake on similar storage materials.« less
  • The adsorption and reaction of NO2 on BaO (<1, ~3, and >20 monolayer equivalent (MLE))/Pt(111) model systems were studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) as well as elevated pressure conditions. NO2 reacts with sub-monolayer BaO (<1 MLE) to form nitrites only, whereas the reaction of NO2 with BaO (~3 MLE)/Pt(111) produces mainly nitrites and a small amount of nitrates under UHV conditions (PNO2 ~ 1.0 × 10-9 Torr) at 300 K. In contrast, a thick BaO(>20 MLE) layer on Pt(111) reacts with NO2 to form nitrite-nitratemore » ion pairs under the same conditions. At elevated NO2 pressures (≥ 1.0 × 10-5 Torr), however, BaO layers at all these three coverages convert to amorphous barium nitrates at 300 K. Upon annealing to 500 K, these amorphous barium nitrate layers transform into crystalline phases. The thermal decomposition of the thus-formed Ba(NOx)2 species is also influenced by the coverage of BaO on the Pt(111) substrate: at low BaO coverages, these species decompose at significantly lower temperatures in comparison with those formed on thick BaO films due to the presence of Ba(NOx)2/Pt interface where the decomposition can proceed at lower temperatures. However, the thermal decomposition of the thick Ba(NO3)2 films follows that of bulk nitrates. Results obtained from these BaO/Pt(111) model systems under UHV and elevated pressure conditions clearly demonstrate that both the BaO film thickness and the applied NO2 pressure are critical in the Ba(NOx)2 formation and subsequent thermal decomposition processes.« less
  • Relationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance was investigated over a model Pt/BaO/Al2O3 and an enhanced lean NOx trap catalyst (LNT). These catalysts were treated at elevated temperature to mimic the effect of thermal aging encountered during the desulfation step in NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Combination of in situ time-resolved X-ray Diffraction (TR-XRD), DRIFT measurement after CO adsorption and TEM observation over the thermally aged samples clearly shows the sintering behavior of Pt crystalline as a function of time and temperature. Under elevated temperatures, the crystalline growth of Pt occurs within a short time (e.g. 1.5 hr) followedmore » by the gradual increase with time. NOx storage reaction performed after successive thermal treatments of catalyst under oxygen and in situ XRD experiment have allowed us to correlate the NOx storage performance with phase change. Comparing the simple Pt-BaO/Al2O3 sample with the enhanced one which shows much less Pt sintering, it was confirmed that the Pt crystalline size plays a critical role in determining the NOx storage activity, in other words, the retention of the small Pt particles after thermal aging is crucial to maintain a higher activity. In conclusion, the prevention of Pt sintering when operated at elevated temperature must be a key factor to design the more durable LNT catalyst, thus potentially implying the practical importance for the improvement of the LNT technology.« less
  • A simple liquid water treatment applied to fresh and thermally aged Pt(2wt%)-BaO(20wt%)/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts at room temperature induces morphological and structural changes in the barium species as followed by XRD and TEM analysis. During the water treatment, liquid water sufficient to fill the catalyst pore volume is brought into contact with the samples. It was found that irrespective of the original barium chemical state (highly dispersed BaO or crystalline BaAl2O4), exposing the sample to this liquid water treatment promotes the formation of BaCO3 crystallites (about 15 – 25 nm of its size) without changing the Pt particle size.more » Such transformations of the barium species are found to significantly promote NOx uptake from 250 °C to 450 °C. The increase in the NOx uptake for the water-treated samples can be attributed to an enhanced Pt-Ba interaction through the redistribution of barium species. These results provide useful information for the regeneration of aged lean NOx trap catalysts since water is plentiful in the exhaust of diesel or lean-burn engines.« less
  • The effect of thermal treatment on the structure and chemical properties of Ba-oxide-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts with different Ba loadings was investigated using BET, TEM, EDS, TPD and FTIR techniques. On the basis of the present and previously reported results, we propose that moderate (< ~873 K) temperature calcinations result in a single monolayer (ML) ‘coating’ of BaO on the alumina surface. At high Ba loading in excess of that required for a full monolayer ‘coating’ (> 8 wt.% BaO), small (~5 nm) particles of ‘bulk’ BaO are present on top of the 1 ML BaO/Al2O3 surface. We did notmore » observe any detectable morphological changes upon higher temperature thermal treatment of 2 and 8 wt% BaO/Al2O3 samples, while dramatic changes occurred for the 20 wt% sample. In this latter case, the transformations included BaAl2O4 formation at the expense of the bulk BaO phase. In particular, we conclude that the surface (ML) BaO phase is quite stable against thermal treatment, while the bulk phase provides the source of Ba for BaAl2O4 formation.« less