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Title: Emerging energy demands on water resources.


No abstract prepared.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
TRN: US200722%%817
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Proposed for publication in the American Water Resources Association Magazine.
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Einfeld, Wayne, Cameron, Christopher P., Pate, Ronald C., and Hightower, Michael S.. Emerging energy demands on water resources.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Einfeld, Wayne, Cameron, Christopher P., Pate, Ronald C., & Hightower, Michael S.. Emerging energy demands on water resources.. United States.
Einfeld, Wayne, Cameron, Christopher P., Pate, Ronald C., and Hightower, Michael S.. Mon . "Emerging energy demands on water resources.". United States. doi:.
title = {Emerging energy demands on water resources.},
author = {Einfeld, Wayne and Cameron, Christopher P. and Pate, Ronald C. and Hightower, Michael S.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {Proposed for publication in the American Water Resources Association Magazine.},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
  • Abstract not provided.
  • Energy is one of the major factors that is shaping a influencing the life of every nation of Earth. It is through energy that a nation can gain and achieve any considerable degree of development and progress. It is well known that energy supplies, or to be more specific fuel supplies, are limited and for the most part exhaustible. The energy resources are of two main kinds. These are external energy sources of which solar energy is one of its constituents and internal energy sources which fossil fuel is also one of its constituents. Historically global energy requirement has beenmore » exponentially increasing. Thus it is vitally important to have a clear and current picture and assessment of the global energy situation. This article begins with an accurate assessment of the current world energy demand and resources, with emphasis on the influence of the energy resources of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We will also investigate and analyze in some detail energy-related technologies such as hydrogen economy, solar energy utilization, and geothermal energy from hot rocks. One further important point will be presented and that is related to the side effects of energy conversion. One of those is currently receiving wide interest due to its extreme harm to the Earth's atmosphere and this is the greenhouse effect. Finally a global perspective of energy conservation as related to the development of energy resources and developing countries is presented.« less
  • Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and landmore » use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal-consumption trade-off in the context of current national policies and regulations that favor decreasing withdrawals (increasing consumptive use), and the role of water saving technologies. The highly-resolved nature of this study both geographically and technologically provides a useful platform to address scientific and policy relevant and emerging issues at the heart of the water-energy nexus in the U.S.« less