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Title: Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition

Abstract

Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N2 will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads onemore » to believe that the Pt/SnO2 catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO2 catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O2, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO2 catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting periods, runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO2 were done. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower actgivities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the following tests 15% Pt/SnO2 catalysts were used. Runs to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation were completed. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. In this reporting period, since no release time was available, no laboratory work was undertaken. Focus was on obtaining equilibrium data on various feed mixtures at temperatures up to 1000 K.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Hampton University
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
908813
DOE Contract Number:  
FG26-03NT41911
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACTIVATION ENERGY; AIR POLLUTION; CATALYSTS; DEACTIVATION; MASS TRANSFER; NITROGEN OXIDES; OXYGEN; POWER PLANTS; SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION; TIN OXIDES; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; WATER VAPOR

Citation Formats

Ates Akyurtlu, and Jale F. Akyurtlu. Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/908813.
Ates Akyurtlu, & Jale F. Akyurtlu. Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition. United States. doi:10.2172/908813.
Ates Akyurtlu, and Jale F. Akyurtlu. Wed . "Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition". United States. doi:10.2172/908813. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/908813.
@article{osti_908813,
title = {Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition},
author = {Ates Akyurtlu and Jale F. Akyurtlu},
abstractNote = {Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N2 will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO2 catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO2 catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O2, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO2 catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting periods, runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO2 were done. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower actgivities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the following tests 15% Pt/SnO2 catalysts were used. Runs to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation were completed. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. In this reporting period, since no release time was available, no laboratory work was undertaken. Focus was on obtaining equilibrium data on various feed mixtures at temperatures up to 1000 K.},
doi = {10.2172/908813},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 14 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed Mar 14 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

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