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Title: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology


This paper presents a comparison of the costs and benefits (reduced petroleum consumption) of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
TRN: US200722%%845
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: World Electric Vehicle Association Journal; Related Information: (WEVA-2006-053)
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Markel, T., and Simpson, A.. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Markel, T., & Simpson, A.. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. United States.
Markel, T., and Simpson, A.. Sun . "Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology". United States. doi:.
title = {Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology},
author = {Markel, T. and Simpson, A.},
abstractNote = {This paper presents a comparison of the costs and benefits (reduced petroleum consumption) of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles.},
doi = {},
journal = {World Electric Vehicle Association Journal},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
  • This paper presents a comparison of vehicle purchase and energy costs, and fuel-saving benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles.
  • Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.
  • In this study we explore two charging management schemes for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The PHEV drivers and the government were stakeholders who might have preferred different charging control strategies. For the former, a proposed controlled charging scheme minimized the operational cost during PHEV charge-depleting and sustaining modes. For the latter, the research minimized monetized carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation for the PHEVs charging, as well as tailpipe emissions for the portion of PHEV trips fueled by gasoline. Hourly driving patterns and electricity data were leveraged. Both were representative of each of the eight North American Electric Reliabilitymore » Corporation regions to examine the results of the proposed schemes. The model accounted for drivers' activity patterns and charging availability spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The optimal charging profiles confirmed the differing nature of the objectives of PHEV drivers and the government; cost-effective charge should occur early in the morning, while ecofriendly charge should be late in the afternoon. Each control's trade-offs between operation cost and emission savings are discussed for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation region. The availability of workplace and public charging was found to affect the optimal charging profiles greatly. Charging control is more efficient for drivers and government when PHEVs have greater electric range.« less
  • The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and themore » more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.« less
  • This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.