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Title: Damage-resistant single-pulse optics for x-ray free electron lasers

Abstract

Short-pulse ultraviolet and x-ray free electron lasers of unprecedented peak brightness are in the process of revolutionizing physics, chemistry, and biology. Optical components for these new light sources have to be able to withstand exposure to the extremely high-fluence photon pulses. Whereas most optics have been designed to stay intact for many pulses, it has also been suggested that single-pulse optics that function during the pulse but disintegrate on a longer timescale, may be useful at higher fluences than multiple-pulse optics. In this paper we will review damage-resistant single-pulse optics that recently have been demonstrated at the FLASH soft-x-ray laser facility at DESY, including mirrors, apertures, and nanolenses. It was found that these objects stay intact for the duration of the 25-fs FLASH pulse, even when exposed to fluences that exceed the melt damage threshold by fifty times or more. We present a computational model for the FLASH laser-material interaction to analyze the extent to which the optics still function during the pulse. Comparison to experimental results obtained at FLASH shows good quantitative agreement.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
908137
Report Number(s):
UCRL-CONF-230792
TRN: US0703645
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: Optics and Optoelectronics, Prague, Czech Republic, Apr 16 - Apr 19, 2007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 42 ENGINEERING; APERTURES; BIOLOGY; BRIGHTNESS; CHEMISTRY; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; LASERS; LIGHT SOURCES; MIRRORS; OPTICS; PHOTONS; PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Hau-Riege, S, London, R, Bogan, M, Chapman, H, and Bergh, M. Damage-resistant single-pulse optics for x-ray free electron lasers. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Hau-Riege, S, London, R, Bogan, M, Chapman, H, & Bergh, M. Damage-resistant single-pulse optics for x-ray free electron lasers. United States.
Hau-Riege, S, London, R, Bogan, M, Chapman, H, and Bergh, M. Fri . "Damage-resistant single-pulse optics for x-ray free electron lasers". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/908137.
@article{osti_908137,
title = {Damage-resistant single-pulse optics for x-ray free electron lasers},
author = {Hau-Riege, S and London, R and Bogan, M and Chapman, H and Bergh, M},
abstractNote = {Short-pulse ultraviolet and x-ray free electron lasers of unprecedented peak brightness are in the process of revolutionizing physics, chemistry, and biology. Optical components for these new light sources have to be able to withstand exposure to the extremely high-fluence photon pulses. Whereas most optics have been designed to stay intact for many pulses, it has also been suggested that single-pulse optics that function during the pulse but disintegrate on a longer timescale, may be useful at higher fluences than multiple-pulse optics. In this paper we will review damage-resistant single-pulse optics that recently have been demonstrated at the FLASH soft-x-ray laser facility at DESY, including mirrors, apertures, and nanolenses. It was found that these objects stay intact for the duration of the 25-fs FLASH pulse, even when exposed to fluences that exceed the melt damage threshold by fifty times or more. We present a computational model for the FLASH laser-material interaction to analyze the extent to which the optics still function during the pulse. Comparison to experimental results obtained at FLASH shows good quantitative agreement.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • Optical elements to be used for x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) must withstand multiple high-fluence pulses. We have used an ultraviolet laser to study the damage of two candidate materials, crystalline Si and B{sub 4}C-coated Si, emulating the temperature profile expected to occur in optics exposed to XFEL pulses. We found that the damage threshold for 10{sup 5} pulses is {approx}20% to 70% lower than the melting threshold.
  • Single-differential and integral cross sections for electron-impact ionization of the C atom and its ions were calculated with the binary-encounter-dipole model [Y.-K. Kim and M. E. Rudd, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3954 (1994)] to study the distribution of free-electron energies in carbon clusters after being irradiated with an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). The averaged energies of the secondary electrons for the C atom, and C{sup 1+}, C{sup 2+}, and C{sup 3+} ions were about 20, 70, 160, and 200 eV, respectively, when incident electron energy was about 20 keV, while those energies were in the order of tens of electronvoltsmore » when the incident electron energy was about 250 eV. The damage to carbon clusters irradiated with the XFEL was also investigated with time-dependent rate equations, considering photoionization, Compton scattering, Auger decay, and electron-impact ionization of the C atom and its ions. The results show that the electron-impact ionization becomes a more important process as the x-ray flux decreases, while the effect of Auger decay gradually appears as the x-ray flux increases. The energy dependence of the incident x ray was also investigated to evaluate the resolution of the diffraction pattern. These results indicate that we should make the XFEL pulse a few fs and about 16 keV to suppress damage and obtain desired resolution of the diffraction pattern.« less
  • These proceedings represent papers presented at the X{minus}ray Free Electron Lasers Workshop held in Gargnano, Italy in June,1997. The workshop was sponsored by the University of Milan, DESY(Hamburg), and the US Department of Energy Laboratories SLAC and LBNL. Particular attention was given to the following topics: analytical and numerical modeling of free electron lasers, longitudinal and transverse coherence; fluctuations, spiking and photon statistics; and experimental projects status and results. There were 32 papers presented and 8 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)
  • The author reviews the basic principles of high gain free electron laser amplifier in single pass configuration for generation of intense, tunable radiation for wavelength shorter than 1,000 {angstrom}. Two schemes are discussed: for wavelength region between 1,000--100 {angstrom}, the high gain harmonic generation of a coherent input radiation can be used. For x-ray wavelength as short as a few {angstrom}, the self-amplified spontaneous emission is currently the only known free electron laser scheme. The author also presents a brief introduction of various key issues in realizing these schemes, which will be discussed in detail in other papers in thesemore » proceedings.« less