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Title: Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

Abstract

Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of {approx} 3 x 10{sup 8} Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10{sup 10} Ohm*cm and with a average {mu}{tau} product for electrons of {approx} 2 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples {approx}2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for thesemore » ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot was a single crystal except on the edges. We consider that single crystals are necessary but are not yet the key to the best radiation response. Starting this with very few changes we were unable to reproduce the single crystal in CG40. (4) CZT defect characterization--Upgraded defect characterization techniques and tools were implemented as well improving the cutting process to reduce damage. An automated thermoelectric effect spectroscopy (TEES) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) machine was modified and tested.. Infrared transmission microscopy was improved to better analyze the role of these inclusions. These three devices improved defect analysis capabilities and helped produce a presentation.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State University, Center for Materials Research, Pullman, WA
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (NN)
OSTI Identifier:
907736
Report Number(s):
DOE/ID/14724/-1
TRN: US0806204
DOE Contract Number:  
FG07-06ID14724
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ALUMINIUM; CADMIUM; CRUCIBLES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DEFECTS; ELECTRONS; ERBIUM; GAMMA RADIATION; HEAT SINKS; HOLMIUM; INDIUM; LINERS; MICROSCOPY; MONOCRYSTALS; QUARTZ; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATIONS; SPECTROSCOPY; TELLURIUM; ZINC TELLURIDES; Radiation detectors; crystal growth; crystal compensation

Citation Formats

Lynn, Kelvin G, and Jones, Kelly A. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/907736.
Lynn, Kelvin G, & Jones, Kelly A. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors. United States. doi:10.2172/907736.
Lynn, Kelvin G, and Jones, Kelly A. Sat . "Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors". United States. doi:10.2172/907736. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/907736.
@article{osti_907736,
title = {Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors},
author = {Lynn, Kelvin G and Jones, Kelly A},
abstractNote = {Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of {approx} 3 x 10{sup 8} Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10{sup 10} Ohm*cm and with a average {mu}{tau} product for electrons of {approx} 2 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples {approx}2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot was a single crystal except on the edges. We consider that single crystals are necessary but are not yet the key to the best radiation response. Starting this with very few changes we were unable to reproduce the single crystal in CG40. (4) CZT defect characterization--Upgraded defect characterization techniques and tools were implemented as well improving the cutting process to reduce damage. An automated thermoelectric effect spectroscopy (TEES) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) machine was modified and tested.. Infrared transmission microscopy was improved to better analyze the role of these inclusions. These three devices improved defect analysis capabilities and helped produce a presentation.},
doi = {10.2172/907736},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {5}
}