skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Abstract

Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neu-tron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide informa-tion on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in Januarymore » 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
903282
Report Number(s):
DOE/NA/00077-F
TRN: US0703591
DOE Contract Number:
FG03-03NA00077
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; CALORIMETERS; CROSS SECTIONS; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE LABORATORY; NEUTRONS; PHOTONS; PROTON BEAMS; PROTON RADIOGRAPHY; X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY; FERMILAB; RESOLUTION; ACCURACY; Stockpile stewardship Proton radiography Cross sections

Citation Formats

Longo, Michael J., Gustafson, H. Richard., Rajaram, Durga, and Nigmanov, Turgun. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/903282.
Longo, Michael J., Gustafson, H. Richard., Rajaram, Durga, & Nigmanov, Turgun. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT. United States. doi:10.2172/903282.
Longo, Michael J., Gustafson, H. Richard., Rajaram, Durga, and Nigmanov, Turgun. Fri . "FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT". United States. doi:10.2172/903282. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/903282.
@article{osti_903282,
title = {FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT},
author = {Longo, Michael J. and Gustafson, H. Richard. and Rajaram, Durga and Nigmanov, Turgun},
abstractNote = {Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neu-tron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide informa-tion on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway.},
doi = {10.2172/903282},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Our research grant provides support for a program to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This will provide data essential to proton radiography. This work is carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the forward production data and in helping to develop an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Grant DE-FG03-03NA00077, wemore » were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005. We expect to continue data taking through October 2005. The analysis of the data, which we expect will be challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged, will take several years. Our group is in a unique position to complete the measurements, analyze the data, and help set up a database to be used by LLNL and LANL to make this information accessible for proton radiography. This work will be done in conjunction with the Livermore Laboratory High Energy Physics and Computational Nuclear Physics Groups. The project is meeting or exceeding its technical milestones, while remaining within its budget.« less
  • OAK-B135 The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This will provide data essential to proton radiography. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeter. The project is on track to meet its technical milestones, though the overall schedule at Fermilab has slipped. The electromagnetic calorimeter and the hadron calorimeter were both assembled and ready for testing with beam inmore » December 2003.« less
  • Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation usedmore » in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has almost completed the analysis the forward neutron production data. Large dis-crepancies between our neutron production data and Monte Carlo expectations have been found.« less
  • A technique for reducing the detector inelastic background in proton reaction cross-section measurements, using the Eisberg-Gooding method, is described. The technique consists of using a dE/dx and a total-energy scintillator in coincidence as a composite detector following the target. (C.J.G.)
  • In this paper we give a brief report on the development of simple direct- and indirect-detection imagers for proton Radiography experiments. We outline conceptual design for a novel, multi-frame S-mega frames per second (Mfs) hybrid imager. The high-density interconnect is identified as a critical enabling technology. We present a description of a 3D electronics packaging cube, which was completed in a recent feasibility study.