skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies

Abstract

The recent explosion in the use of electronic voting machines provides a wonderful opportunity to teach students about computer security. Because voting is the cornerstone of any democracy or republic, the need for secure voting systems is obvious. Further, students are familiar with how to vote. But the complexity of mapping a traditional process of voting using secret ballots to an electronic environment shows the difficulties of implementing secure processes and systems. In this article, we show a high level mapping from selected security and privacy education outcomes into a target ‘case study’ of developing electronic voting machines intended for traditional secret ballot elections. Our intent is to motivate both a set of lessons specifically involving e-voting, as well as illustrating the usefulness of having a mapping from outcomes to simplified case studies.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
903237
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-53334
TRN: US200719%%517
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Security & Privacy, 5(1):53-56; Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; COMPUTERS; EDUCATION; SECURITY; e-voting; security; education

Citation Formats

Bishop, Matt, and Frincke, Deb. Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.1.
Bishop, Matt, & Frincke, Deb. Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies. United States. doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.1.
Bishop, Matt, and Frincke, Deb. Mon . "Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies". United States. doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.1.
@article{osti_903237,
title = {Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies},
author = {Bishop, Matt and Frincke, Deb},
abstractNote = {The recent explosion in the use of electronic voting machines provides a wonderful opportunity to teach students about computer security. Because voting is the cornerstone of any democracy or republic, the need for secure voting systems is obvious. Further, students are familiar with how to vote. But the complexity of mapping a traditional process of voting using secret ballots to an electronic environment shows the difficulties of implementing secure processes and systems. In this article, we show a high level mapping from selected security and privacy education outcomes into a target ‘case study’ of developing electronic voting machines intended for traditional secret ballot elections. Our intent is to motivate both a set of lessons specifically involving e-voting, as well as illustrating the usefulness of having a mapping from outcomes to simplified case studies.},
doi = {10.1109/MSP.2007.1},
journal = {IEEE Security & Privacy, 5(1):53-56},
number = 1,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as partmore » of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.« less
  • Purpose: Radiation treatment planning involves a complex workflow that can make safety improvement efforts challenging. This study utilizes an incident reporting system to identify detection points of near-miss errors, in order to guide our departmental safety improvement efforts. Previous studies have examined where errors arise, but not where they are detected or their patterns. Methods: 1377 incidents were analyzed from a departmental nearmiss error reporting system from 3/2012–10/2013. All incidents were prospectively reviewed weekly by a multi-disciplinary team, and assigned a near-miss severity score ranging from 0–4 reflecting potential harm (no harm to critical). A 98-step consensus workflow was usedmore » to determine origination and detection points of near-miss errors, categorized into 7 major steps (patient assessment/orders, simulation, contouring/treatment planning, pre-treatment plan checks, therapist/on-treatment review, post-treatment checks, and equipment issues). Categories were compared using ANOVA. Results: In the 7-step workflow, 23% of near-miss errors were detected within the same step in the workflow, while an additional 37% were detected by the next step in the workflow, and 23% were detected two steps downstream. Errors detected further from origination were more severe (p<.001; Figure 1). The most common source of near-miss errors was treatment planning/contouring, with 476 near misses (35%). Of those 476, only 72(15%) were found before leaving treatment planning, 213(45%) were found at physics plan checks, and 191(40%) were caught at the therapist pre-treatment chart review or on portal imaging. Errors that passed through physics plan checks and were detected by therapists were more severe than other errors originating in contouring/treatment planning (1.81 vs 1.33, p<0.001). Conclusion: Errors caught by radiation treatment therapists tend to be more severe than errors caught earlier in the workflow, highlighting the importance of safety checks in dosimetry and physics. We are utilizing our findings to improve manual and automated checklists for dosimetry and physics.« less
  • Purpose: This project sought to “gamify” the instruction of radiation interaction physics concepts for technology students. Gamification applies game mechanics and user interactions in active learning contexts. In one part of this project, a self-guided eModule was developed for conceptual radiation interaction instruction. In a second part, a web-based game, Particle Launch (http://particle-launcher.ist.unomaha.edu), was created to challenge students to quickly apply radiation interaction concepts in a way that is stimulating and motivating. Methods: The eModule, focused on conceptual interaction physics, was designed in Adobe Captivate and incorporates animation, web videos, and assessment questions in order to generate student interest. Navigatingmore » the whole module takes 40 minutes for beginners. Assessments after three main sections are comprised of 3–4 questions randomly selected from a question pool. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Information Science and Technology, the Particle Launch game was created with the Unity gaming engine and designed with a game-play look and feel. The object of the game is to utilize different particles, energies, and directions to destroy a target given a limited number of resources and time to complete the task. A rewards system encourages accurate shots. Results: The eModule part of the project encourages a flipped classroom model in which class time is devoted to application of concepts rather than information-based lectures. Currently, eModule assessments are not tracked but this feature could be incorporated to encourage participation. Furthermore, in a class of five technology students, the game was found to be fun and engaging and had the effect of reinforcing basic concepts from the eModule. Conclusion: Gamification has significant potential to alter medical physics instruction. Game-play feedback is an important part of the learning process. Students found Particle Launch inviting and challenging and further research could help game design. This project was generously supported by the Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Academic Affairs and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.« less
  • Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value.more » This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.« less