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Title: Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: Water, Pores and the hydrogen fuel systems.

Abstract

A theory for the electroreduction/oxidation was formulated A new density formalism is discused with possible applications to pores in membranes

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Puerto Rico
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Energy Research (ER)
OSTI Identifier:
903212
Report Number(s):
DOE/FG/15422-7
Final report; TRN: US201006%%620
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-03ER15422
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; HYDROGEN FUELS; MEMBRANES; WATER; pores, water, hydrogen fuel cell

Citation Formats

Lesser Blum. Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: Water, Pores and the hydrogen fuel systems.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/903212.
Lesser Blum. Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: Water, Pores and the hydrogen fuel systems.. United States. doi:10.2172/903212.
Lesser Blum. Fri . "Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: Water, Pores and the hydrogen fuel systems.". United States. doi:10.2172/903212. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/903212.
@article{osti_903212,
title = {Theoretical Studies of Complex Systems: Water, Pores and the hydrogen fuel systems.},
author = {Lesser Blum},
abstractNote = {A theory for the electroreduction/oxidation was formulated A new density formalism is discused with possible applications to pores in membranes},
doi = {10.2172/903212},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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  • There is increasing interest in hydrogen-bromine fuel cells as both primary and regenerative energy storage systems. One promising design for a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell is a negative half cell having only a gas phase, which is separated by a cationic exchange membrane from a positive half cell having an aqueous electrolyte. The hydrogen gas and the aqueous bromide solution are stored external to the cell. In order to calculate the energy storage capacity and to predict and assess the performance of a single cell, the open circuit potential (OCV) must be estimated for different states of change, under various conditions.more » Theoretical expressions were derived to estimate the OCV of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. In these expressions temperature, hydrogen pressure, and bromine and hydrobromic acid concentrations were taken into consideration. Also included are the effects of the Nafion membrance separator and the various bromide complex species. Activity coefficients were taken into account in one of the expressions. The sensitivity of these parameters on the calculated OCV was studied.« less
  • This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.
  • This report is a summary of work performed for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency under Contract AC7NC122. The work is directly related to the Agency effort to examine potential alternative fuel cycles that might enhance uranium resource utilization, minimize plutonium production, and reduce the need for reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Two alternative fuel cycles are examined in this report: (1) the possible use of metallic fuel in LWR fuel elements, and (2) the use of mixture of light water and heavy water as coolant/moderator in a pressurized water reactor. In both cases, calculations ofmore » survey nature were performed to determine the basic characteristics of the two cycles -- reactivity, fuel depletion isotopics, uranium resource requirements and plutonium production. Results of these calculations are presented, together with a discussion of the state-of-the-art and design considerations relative to the utilization of metallic fuel.« less
  • Further studies of the Zr-water reaction by the condenser-discharge method are reported. The reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30- and 60-mil wires in water from room temperature to 315 deg C (1500-psi vapor pressure). Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reactions. This was explained in terms of a 2-step reaction scheme in which the reaction rate is initially controlled by the rate of gaseous diffusion of water vapor toward the hot metal particles and of hydrogen, generated by reaction, away from the particles. At a later time, the reaction becomesmore » controlled by the parabolic rate law, resulting in rapid cooling of the particles. A mathematical model of the reaction of molten metal spheres with water was proposed. Explosive reactions were found to occur with particles smaller than about 1 mm in heated water and 0.5 mm in room-temperature water. The explosive reactions were caused by the ability of the evolving H/sub 2/ to propel the particles through water at high speed. The high-speed motion was detected on motion picture film and had the effect of removing the gaseous diffusion barrier (increasing the Nusselt number), resulting in very rapid reaction. Computed results compared favorably with experimental results obtained by the condenser- discharge experiment and with the results of previous investigators. Computations indicated that the extent and rate of reaction depended on the particle diameter and the water temperature, and were relatively independent of the metal temperature so long as the metal was fully melted. This makes it possible to estimate the extent of Zr-water reaction that would occur during a reactor accident in which the particle sizes of the residue could be estimated. Comparisons were made with the results of meltdown experiments in TREAT, and applications to reactor hazards analysis were discussed. (auth)« less