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Title: Cryogenci DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion

Abstract

Ignition target designs for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-fuel layer of deuterium and tritium. The need for solid-fuel layers was recognized more than 30 years ago and considerable effort has resulted in the production of cryogenic targets that meet most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIf. Significant progress with the formation and characterization of cryogenic targets for both direct and x-ray drive will be described. Results from recent cryogenic implosions will also be presented.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
902860
Report Number(s):
DE/FC52/92SF19460-746
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X; PHPAEN; 2006-149; 1708; TRN: US0703273
DOE Contract Number:
FC52-92SF19460
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 14; Conference: 48th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, Philadelphia, PA. 30 October-3 November 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CRYOGENICS; DEUTERIUM; FABRICATION; IGNITION; IMPLOSIONS; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; PHYSICS; PLASMA; PRODUCTION; TARGETS; TRITIUM; US NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

Citation Formats

Sangster, T.C., Betti, R., Craxton, R.S., Delettrez, J.A., Edgell, D.H., Elasky, L.M., Glebov, V.Yu., Goncharov, V.N., Harding, D.R., Jacobs-Perkins, D., Janezic, R., Keck, R.L., Knauer, J.P., Loucks, S.J., Lund, L.D., Marshall, F.J., McCrory, R.L., McKenty, P.W., Meyerhofer, D.D., Radha, P.B., Regan, S.P., Seka, W., Shmayda, W.T., Skupsky, S., Smalyuk, V.A., Soures, J.M., Stoeckl, C., Yaakobi, B., Frenje, J.A., Li, C.K., Petrasso, R.D., Seguin, F.H., Moody, J.D., Atherton, J.A., MacGowan, B.D., Kilkenny, J.D., Bernat, T.P., and Montgomery, D.S. Cryogenci DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2671844.
Sangster, T.C., Betti, R., Craxton, R.S., Delettrez, J.A., Edgell, D.H., Elasky, L.M., Glebov, V.Yu., Goncharov, V.N., Harding, D.R., Jacobs-Perkins, D., Janezic, R., Keck, R.L., Knauer, J.P., Loucks, S.J., Lund, L.D., Marshall, F.J., McCrory, R.L., McKenty, P.W., Meyerhofer, D.D., Radha, P.B., Regan, S.P., Seka, W., Shmayda, W.T., Skupsky, S., Smalyuk, V.A., Soures, J.M., Stoeckl, C., Yaakobi, B., Frenje, J.A., Li, C.K., Petrasso, R.D., Seguin, F.H., Moody, J.D., Atherton, J.A., MacGowan, B.D., Kilkenny, J.D., Bernat, T.P., & Montgomery, D.S. Cryogenci DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2671844.
Sangster, T.C., Betti, R., Craxton, R.S., Delettrez, J.A., Edgell, D.H., Elasky, L.M., Glebov, V.Yu., Goncharov, V.N., Harding, D.R., Jacobs-Perkins, D., Janezic, R., Keck, R.L., Knauer, J.P., Loucks, S.J., Lund, L.D., Marshall, F.J., McCrory, R.L., McKenty, P.W., Meyerhofer, D.D., Radha, P.B., Regan, S.P., Seka, W., Shmayda, W.T., Skupsky, S., Smalyuk, V.A., Soures, J.M., Stoeckl, C., Yaakobi, B., Frenje, J.A., Li, C.K., Petrasso, R.D., Seguin, F.H., Moody, J.D., Atherton, J.A., MacGowan, B.D., Kilkenny, J.D., Bernat, T.P., and Montgomery, D.S. Wed . "Cryogenci DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2671844.
@article{osti_902860,
title = {Cryogenci DT and D2 Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion},
author = {Sangster, T.C. and Betti, R. and Craxton, R.S. and Delettrez, J.A. and Edgell, D.H. and Elasky, L.M. and Glebov, V.Yu. and Goncharov, V.N. and Harding, D.R. and Jacobs-Perkins, D. and Janezic, R. and Keck, R.L. and Knauer, J.P. and Loucks, S.J. and Lund, L.D. and Marshall, F.J. and McCrory, R.L. and McKenty, P.W. and Meyerhofer, D.D. and Radha, P.B. and Regan, S.P. and Seka, W. and Shmayda, W.T. and Skupsky, S. and Smalyuk, V.A. and Soures, J.M. and Stoeckl, C. and Yaakobi, B. and Frenje, J.A. and Li, C.K. and Petrasso, R.D. and Seguin, F.H. and Moody, J.D. and Atherton, J.A. and MacGowan, B.D. and Kilkenny, J.D. and Bernat, T.P. and Montgomery, D.S.},
abstractNote = {Ignition target designs for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-fuel layer of deuterium and tritium. The need for solid-fuel layers was recognized more than 30 years ago and considerable effort has resulted in the production of cryogenic targets that meet most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIf. Significant progress with the formation and characterization of cryogenic targets for both direct and x-ray drive will be described. Results from recent cryogenic implosions will also be presented.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2671844},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = ,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed May 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Ignition target designs for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [W. J. Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)] are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-fuel layer of deuterium and tritium. The need for solid-fuel layers was recognized more than 30 years ago and considerable effort has resulted in the production of cryogenic targets that meet most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIF. At the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the inner-ice surface of cryogenic DT capsules formed using {beta}-layering meets the surface-smoothness requirement for ignitionmore » (<1-{mu}m rms in all modes). Prototype x-ray-drive cryogenic targets being produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are nearing the tolerances required for ignition on the NIF. At LLE, these cryogenic DT (and D{sub 2}) capsules are being imploded on the direct-drive 60-beam, 30-kJ UV OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The designs of these cryogenic targets for OMEGA are energy scaled from the baseline direct-drive-ignition design for the NIF. Significant progress with the formation and characterization of cryogenic targets for both direct and x-ray drive will be described. Results from recent cryogenic implosions will also be presented.« less
  • A set of laser implosion experiments were conducted at the OMEGA laser at the Univ. of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) to study the effect of He concentration in DT-filled target shells on fusion yield in ICF implosions.. Eleven laser fusion shells consisting of 1100-{mu}m diameter, hollow, fused silica spheres with 4.6 to 4.7-{mu}m-thick walls were loaded with 520 kPa of deuterium-tritium (DT) and then with {sup 3}He (101.3 or 520 kPa). The {sup 3}He permeabilities of the shells were determined by measuring the pressure rate of rise into a system with known volume. A mathematical method was developedmore » that relied on the experimental fill pressure and time, and the rate of rise data to solve differential equations using MathCAD to simultaneously calculate {sup 3}He permeability and initial {sup 3}He partial pressure inside the shell. Because of the high permeation rate for {sup 3}He out of the shells compared to that for DT gas, shells had to be recharged with {sup 3}He immediately before being laser imploded or 'shot' at LLE. The {sup 3}He partial pressure in each individual shell at shot time was calculated from the measured {sup 3}He permeability. Two different partial pressures of {sup 3}He inside the shell were shown to reduce neutron and gamma yields during implosion. (authors)« less
  • Improving the description of the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium-tritium (DT) has recently been shown to change significantly the gain of an inertial confinement fusion target [S. X. Hu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235003 (2010)]. Here we use an advanced multiphase EOS, based on ab initio calculations, to perform a full optimization of the laser pulse shape with hydrodynamic simulations starting from 19 K in DT ice. The thermonuclear gain is shown to be a robust estimate over possible uncertainties of the EOS. Two different target designs are discussed, for shock ignition and self-ignition. In the firstmore » case, the areal density and thermonuclear energy can be recovered by slightly increasing the laser energy. In the second case, a lower in-flight adiabat is needed, leading to a significant delay (3 ns) in the shock timing of the implosion.« less
  • Cited by 1
  • The wetted foam capsule design for inertial confinement fusion capsules, which includes a foam layer wetted with deuterium-tritium liquid, enables layered capsule implosions with a wide range of hot-spot convergence ratios (CR) on the National Ignition Facility. In this paper, we present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design that demonstrates high gain in one-dimensional simulations. In these simulations, increasing the convergence ratio leads to an improved capsule yield due to higher hot-spot temperatures and increased fuel areal density. High-resolution two-dimensional simulations of this design are presented with detailed and well resolved models for the capsule fill tube, support tent, surfacemore » roughness, and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive. Our modeling of these asymmetries is validated by comparisons with available experimental data. In 2D simulations of the full-scale wetted foam capsule design, jetting caused by the fill tube is prevented by the expansion of the tungsten-doped shell layer due to preheat. While the impacts of surface roughness and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive are enhanced by convergence effects, likely underpredicted in 2D at high CR, simulations predict that the capsule is robust to these features. Nevertheless, the design is highly susceptible to the effects of the capsule support tent, which negates all of the one-dimensional benefits of increasing the convergence ratio. Indeed, when the support tent is included in simulations, the yield decreases as the convergence ratio is increased for CR > 20. Finally and nevertheless, the results suggest that the full-scale wetted foam design has the potential to outperform ice layer capsules given currently achievable levels of asymmetries when fielded at low convergence ratios (CR < 20).« less
    Cited by 1