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Title: What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

Abstract

In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $$35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $$60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $$100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $$500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % {Delta}v/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly < 1 mm radius focal spot targets. We seek multi-pulsing with neutralized compression and focusing to enable higher peak power capability and the ability to create nearly arbitrary composite ''picket fence'' pulse shapes can be used to innovate HIF target designs for lower driver energy, and at the same time, reduce unit driver cost per joule for given driver energy, and reduce development time. For example, Debbie Callahan has explored close-coupled HIF targets with adequate gains > 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints, models to optimize bunch lengths, solenoid fields, core radial builds and switching. Figure 2 below illustrates one linac module for a driver example (not yet optimized) consisting of 40 linacs (20 at each end). Necessarily, this first look invokes many new ideas, but could they potentially meet the above challenges?

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Director. Office of Science. Office of AdvancedScientific Computing Research. Office of Fusion EnergySciences
OSTI Identifier:
902800
Report Number(s):
LBNL-61905; HIFAN 676
R&D Project: Z41003; BnR: AT5015031; TRN: US0703044
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32; ELECTRICITY; ELECTROLYSIS; FISSION; GEOMETRY; HEAVY IONS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN FUELS; IGNITION; INDUCTION; ION BEAMS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; METHANE; MOLTEN SALTS; PEAK LOAD; SOLENOIDS; SWITCHES; TARGETS; VELOCITY; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Logan, Grant, Lee, Ed, Yu, Simon, Briggs, Dick, Barnard, John, Friedman, Alex, Qin, Hong, Waldron, Will, Leitner, Mattaheus, Kwan, Joe, Henestroza, Enrique, Caporaso, George, Meier, Wayne, Tabak, Max, Callahan, Debbie, Moir, Ralph, and Peterson, Per. What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/902800.
Logan, Grant, Lee, Ed, Yu, Simon, Briggs, Dick, Barnard, John, Friedman, Alex, Qin, Hong, Waldron, Will, Leitner, Mattaheus, Kwan, Joe, Henestroza, Enrique, Caporaso, George, Meier, Wayne, Tabak, Max, Callahan, Debbie, Moir, Ralph, & Peterson, Per. What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs. United States. doi:10.2172/902800.
Logan, Grant, Lee, Ed, Yu, Simon, Briggs, Dick, Barnard, John, Friedman, Alex, Qin, Hong, Waldron, Will, Leitner, Mattaheus, Kwan, Joe, Henestroza, Enrique, Caporaso, George, Meier, Wayne, Tabak, Max, Callahan, Debbie, Moir, Ralph, and Peterson, Per. Wed . "What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs". United States. doi:10.2172/902800. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/902800.
@article{osti_902800,
title = {What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs},
author = {Logan, Grant and Lee, Ed and Yu, Simon and Briggs, Dick and Barnard, John and Friedman, Alex and Qin, Hong and Waldron, Will and Leitner, Mattaheus and Kwan, Joe and Henestroza, Enrique and Caporaso, George and Meier, Wayne and Tabak, Max and Callahan, Debbie and Moir, Ralph and Peterson, Per},
abstractNote = {In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % {Delta}v/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly < 1 mm radius focal spot targets. We seek multi-pulsing with neutralized compression and focusing to enable higher peak power capability and the ability to create nearly arbitrary composite ''picket fence'' pulse shapes can be used to innovate HIF target designs for lower driver energy, and at the same time, reduce unit driver cost per joule for given driver energy, and reduce development time. For example, Debbie Callahan has explored close-coupled HIF targets with adequate gains > 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints, models to optimize bunch lengths, solenoid fields, core radial builds and switching. Figure 2 below illustrates one linac module for a driver example (not yet optimized) consisting of 40 linacs (20 at each end). Necessarily, this first look invokes many new ideas, but could they potentially meet the above challenges?},
doi = {10.2172/902800},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 19 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Wed Apr 19 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

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