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Title: Novel Magnetic Hydrogen Sensing: A Case Study Using Antiferromagnetic Hematite Nanoparticles

Abstract

Hydrogen sensing is a critical component of safety to address wide spread public perceptions of the hazards of production, storage, transportation and use of hydrogen in proposed future automobiles and in various other applications. A nanoscale magnetic hydrogen sensor is proposed based on the experimental observation of systematically varying the saturation magnetization and remanence of nanoscale antiferromagnetic hematite with hydrogen flow. The saturation magnetization and remanence of the nanoscale hematite sample showed an increase of one to two orders of magnitude in the presence of flowing hydrogen gas at concentrations in the 1 to 10% range and at 575 K, suggesting that a practical magnetic hydrogen sensor could be developed using this material and the novel magnetic sensing method. Thermogravimetric analysis of the hematite sample shows significant mass loss when hydrogen gas is introduced. Xray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies ruled out any impurity phase formation as a result of gas-sample interaction. This work thus facilitates the use of the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic material as gas sensing parameters, thus exploring the concept of ‘magnetic gas sensing’.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
902396
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-54277
9995; KP1704020; TRN: US200717%%289
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nanotechnology, 18(16):Art. No. 165502; Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 16
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS; AUTOMOBILES; HEMATITE; HYDROGEN; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MAGNETIZATION; PRODUCTION; SAFETY; SATURATION; STORAGE; THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Punnoose, Alex, Reddy, K. M., Thurber, A., Hays, Jason, and Engelhard, Mark H.. Novel Magnetic Hydrogen Sensing: A Case Study Using Antiferromagnetic Hematite Nanoparticles. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/16/165502.
Punnoose, Alex, Reddy, K. M., Thurber, A., Hays, Jason, & Engelhard, Mark H.. Novel Magnetic Hydrogen Sensing: A Case Study Using Antiferromagnetic Hematite Nanoparticles. United States. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/16/165502.
Punnoose, Alex, Reddy, K. M., Thurber, A., Hays, Jason, and Engelhard, Mark H.. Wed . "Novel Magnetic Hydrogen Sensing: A Case Study Using Antiferromagnetic Hematite Nanoparticles". United States. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/16/165502.
@article{osti_902396,
title = {Novel Magnetic Hydrogen Sensing: A Case Study Using Antiferromagnetic Hematite Nanoparticles},
author = {Punnoose, Alex and Reddy, K. M. and Thurber, A. and Hays, Jason and Engelhard, Mark H.},
abstractNote = {Hydrogen sensing is a critical component of safety to address wide spread public perceptions of the hazards of production, storage, transportation and use of hydrogen in proposed future automobiles and in various other applications. A nanoscale magnetic hydrogen sensor is proposed based on the experimental observation of systematically varying the saturation magnetization and remanence of nanoscale antiferromagnetic hematite with hydrogen flow. The saturation magnetization and remanence of the nanoscale hematite sample showed an increase of one to two orders of magnitude in the presence of flowing hydrogen gas at concentrations in the 1 to 10% range and at 575 K, suggesting that a practical magnetic hydrogen sensor could be developed using this material and the novel magnetic sensing method. Thermogravimetric analysis of the hematite sample shows significant mass loss when hydrogen gas is introduced. Xray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies ruled out any impurity phase formation as a result of gas-sample interaction. This work thus facilitates the use of the magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetic material as gas sensing parameters, thus exploring the concept of ‘magnetic gas sensing’.},
doi = {10.1088/0957-4484/18/16/165502},
journal = {Nanotechnology, 18(16):Art. No. 165502},
number = 16,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Wed Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Two sets of magnetization isotherms of pure natural hematite single crystals from Elba were obtained in the temperature range from 488 deg K down to liquid helium temperatures. The first set of curves, along a certain direction in the basal plane, support Neel's magnetic model of a superposition of a weak ferromagnetism on a normal antiferromagnetism. The second set of curves, along the ternary axis, display very unusual form. The analysis of the isotherms shows that the antiferromagnetic susceptibility-temperature curves, x - T, are in good agreement with those obtained by Neel and Pauthenet but the weak ferromagnetic properties aremore » apparently contradictory to their interpretations. The spontaneous magnetization-temperature curves, sigma /sub 0/-T, indicate that there is no isotropic ferromagnetism, and that the weak anisotropic ferromagnetism in the basal plane above transition and along the ternary axis below transition seems to have the same nature and origin. The X - T and sigma / sub 0/ - T curves show that the wide transition takes place gradually and continuously. A general magnetic model of canted antiferromagnetism with unequal sublattice moments was proposed which explains all the experimental data satisfactorily. From the present model Haigh's data of remanent magnetization of hematite powder seems to be explained naturally. (auth)« less
  • In this paper, fabrication of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nano copper particles is discussed. The modified electrode has been tested for the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared employing a simple chemical reduction method. The presence of Cu NPs was confirmed through UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The size and morphology of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensor were studied via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensor displayedmore » excellent performance features towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection exhibiting wide linear range, low detection limit, swift response time, good reproducibility and stability.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx_equal}1.1 meV, in hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy, which is strongly related to the suppressionmore » of the Morin transition in nanoparticles of hematite. Further, the localization of the signal in both energy and momentum transfer brings evidence for finite-size quantization of spin waves in the system.« less
  • Monodisperse hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by forced hydrolysis of acidic Fe{sup 3+} solution. Rietveld analysis was applied to the X-ray powder diffraction data to refine the lattice constants and atomic positions. The lattice constants for a hexagonal unit cell were determined to be a ∼ 0.50327 and c ∼ 1.37521 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to study the morphology of the particles. Atomic scale micrographs and diffraction patterns from several zone axes were obtained. These reveal the high degree of crystallinity of the particles. A series of observations made on the particles by tilting them through a range ofmore » ±45° revealed the particles to be micaceous with stacking of platelets with well defined crystallographic orientations. The Morin transition in these nanoparticles was found to occur at 210 K, which is lower temperature than 263 K of bulk hematite. It was ascertained from the previous Mössbauer studies that the spin orientation for nano-sized hematite particle flips from 90° to 28° with respect to the c-axis of the hexagonal structure during the Morin transition, which is in contrast to that observed in bulk hematite where spin orientation flips from 90° to 0°.« less