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Title: H2 Production and Fuel Cells

Abstract

The world demand for energy and the need for protecting our environment can be achieved by increasing energy efficiency and by developing “clean” energy sources. Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen is receiving a lot of attention around the world. In this chapter, recent applications of oxide nanostructures in H2 production and fuel cell technology are summarized. We cover in detail catalytic studies for hydrogen production via the water gas shift reaction over ceria-based nanosystems. These studies illustrate the importance of understanding the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
901467
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-50255
TRN: US200714%%57
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Synthesis, Properties, and Application of Oxide Nanoparticles, 651-681
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; CATALYSTS; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; ENERGY SOURCES; FUEL CELLS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN PRODUCTION; NANOSTRUCTURES; OXIDES; PRODUCTION; WATER GAS; H2 production; Oxide nanocatalysts; Water-gas shift reaction; Methane steam reforming; Partial oxidation of methane; Fuel cells; Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Polymer electolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC).

Citation Formats

Wang, Xianqin, and Rodriguez, Jose A. H2 Production and Fuel Cells. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Wang, Xianqin, & Rodriguez, Jose A. H2 Production and Fuel Cells. United States.
Wang, Xianqin, and Rodriguez, Jose A. Mon . "H2 Production and Fuel Cells". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_901467,
title = {H2 Production and Fuel Cells},
author = {Wang, Xianqin and Rodriguez, Jose A.},
abstractNote = {The world demand for energy and the need for protecting our environment can be achieved by increasing energy efficiency and by developing “clean” energy sources. Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen is receiving a lot of attention around the world. In this chapter, recent applications of oxide nanostructures in H2 production and fuel cell technology are summarized. We cover in detail catalytic studies for hydrogen production via the water gas shift reaction over ceria-based nanosystems. These studies illustrate the importance of understanding the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Book:
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  • The development of inexpensive electrocatalysts for the production and oxidation of hydrogen will play a vital role in future energy storage and delivery systems. The generation of hydrogen from non-fossil energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, and nuclear energy is one approach being considered for storing the electrical energy generated by these sources for transportation and other uses that are not temporally matched to electrical energy production. In the reverse process, in which fuels are used to produce electricity, it is recognized that fuel cells have significant thermodynamic advantages in terms of energy efficiency compared to internal combustion enginesmore » and other Carnot processes. Both fuel generation and fuel utilization require electrocatalysts for efficient interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.« less
  • Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCsmore » and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.« less