skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions

Abstract

At the Hanford Site in Washington, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments to enhance the barrier’s reductive capacity using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The aqueous pressure increased by a maximum of 25 KPa during infiltration, but a decrease in permeability was not observed. Under optimal conditions, the 0.6% amended Fe0 concentrationmore » would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced Fe (II) in the ISRM barrier.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
901172
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-52567
Journal ID: ISSN 1069-3629; GWMREV; 14892; 830403000; TRN: US200713%%154
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 27(1):122-130; Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AQUIFERS; CAPACITY; CHROMATES; CHROMIUM; COLUMBIA RIVER; FLOW RATE; IRON; PERMEABILITY; POLYMERS; POSITIONING; SEDIMENTS; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Oostrom, Mart, Wietsma, Thomas W., Covert, Matthew A., and Vermeul, Vince R. Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2006.00130.x.
Oostrom, Mart, Wietsma, Thomas W., Covert, Matthew A., & Vermeul, Vince R. Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions. United States. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2006.00130.x.
Oostrom, Mart, Wietsma, Thomas W., Covert, Matthew A., and Vermeul, Vince R. Thu . "Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions". United States. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2006.00130.x.
@article{osti_901172,
title = {Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions},
author = {Oostrom, Mart and Wietsma, Thomas W. and Covert, Matthew A. and Vermeul, Vince R.},
abstractNote = {At the Hanford Site in Washington, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments to enhance the barrier’s reductive capacity using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The aqueous pressure increased by a maximum of 25 KPa during infiltration, but a decrease in permeability was not observed. Under optimal conditions, the 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced Fe (II) in the ISRM barrier.},
doi = {10.1111/j.1745-6592.2006.00130.x},
journal = {Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 27(1):122-130},
number = 1,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One waymore » enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.« less
  • At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or amore » high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.« less
  • Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through themore » unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Removal of uranium from contaminated ground water using zero valent iron is currently under evaluation at several US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Uranium removal by zero valent iron may occur via adsorption onto iron corrosion products, and by reduction to less soluble valence states by reactions with elemental iron. This research investigated the effects of water chemistry and surface precipitate buildup on the removal of soluble uranium by zero valent iron. Batch testing was performed to assess solution chemistry effects on uranium adsorption to the potential iron corrosion products, magnetite and a mixed valent amorphous iron oxide. Uranium adsorptionmore » to the simulated iron corrosion products was highly dependent on pH, and the concentration and speciation of the background electrolyte solution. Uranium removal via reduction by elemental iron closely approximated pseudo-first-order removal kinetics, despite the buildup of up to 40,000 monolayers of precipitated uranium on the iron surfaces. This indicates that the rate of uranium removal is not strongly dependent on the thickness of the adsorbed uranium layer. Short-term rates of uranium reduction were similar for all solutions tested, but long-term rates were highly dependent on water chemistry. Compared to deionized water, uranium removal rates were increased in sodium chloride containing solutions and reduced in sodium nitrate solutions. The strong influence of water chemistry on long-term reduction rates indicates that system design will require extended testing with the ground water of interest.« less