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Title: AGE-RELATED BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION KINETICS FOLLOWING IN VITRO INCUBATION WITH CHLORPYRIFOS-OXON AND DIAZINON-OXON

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos and diazinon are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, and their primary mechanism of action involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their metabolites chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) and diazinon-oxon (DZO), respectively. The study objectives were to assess the in vitro age-related inhibition kinetics of neonatal rat brain cholinesterase (ChE) by estimating the bimolecular inhibitory rate constant (ki) values for CPO and DZO. Brain ChE inhibition and ki values following CPO and DZO incubation with neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats rat brain homogenates were determined at post natal day (PND) -5, -12 and -17 and compared with the corresponding inhibition and ki values obtained in the adult rat. A modified Ellman method was utilized for measuring the ChE activity. Chlorpyrifos-oxon resulted in greater ChE inhibition than DZO consistent with the estimated ki values of both compounds. Neonatal brain ChE inhibition kinetics exhibited a marked age-related sensitivity to CPO, where the order of ChE inhibition was PND-5 > PND-7 > PND-17 with ki values of 0.95, 0.50 and 0.22 nM-1hr-1, respectively. In contrast, DZO did not exhibit an age-related inhibition of neonatal brain ChE, and the estimated ki value at all PND ages was 0.02 nM-1hr-1. These results demonstrated an age- and chemical-related OP-selectivemore » inhibition of rat brain ChE which may be critically important in understanding the potential sensitivity of juvenile humans to specific OP exposures.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
900914
Report Number(s):
PNWD-SA-7486
Journal ID: ISSN 1096-6080; TOSCF2; TRN: US200711%%636
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicological Sciences, 95(1):147-155; Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ADULTS; BRAIN; CHOLINESTERASE; HOMOGENATES; IN VITRO; INCUBATION; INSECTICIDES; JUVENILES; KINETICS; METABOLITES; SENSITIVITY; agricultural chemicals; ADME; cholinesterase

Citation Formats

Kousba, Ahmed A., Poet, Torka S., and Timchalk, Chuck. AGE-RELATED BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION KINETICS FOLLOWING IN VITRO INCUBATION WITH CHLORPYRIFOS-OXON AND DIAZINON-OXON. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl123.
Kousba, Ahmed A., Poet, Torka S., & Timchalk, Chuck. AGE-RELATED BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION KINETICS FOLLOWING IN VITRO INCUBATION WITH CHLORPYRIFOS-OXON AND DIAZINON-OXON. United States. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl123.
Kousba, Ahmed A., Poet, Torka S., and Timchalk, Chuck. Mon . "AGE-RELATED BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION KINETICS FOLLOWING IN VITRO INCUBATION WITH CHLORPYRIFOS-OXON AND DIAZINON-OXON". United States. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl123.
@article{osti_900914,
title = {AGE-RELATED BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION KINETICS FOLLOWING IN VITRO INCUBATION WITH CHLORPYRIFOS-OXON AND DIAZINON-OXON},
author = {Kousba, Ahmed A. and Poet, Torka S. and Timchalk, Chuck},
abstractNote = {Chlorpyrifos and diazinon are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, and their primary mechanism of action involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their metabolites chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) and diazinon-oxon (DZO), respectively. The study objectives were to assess the in vitro age-related inhibition kinetics of neonatal rat brain cholinesterase (ChE) by estimating the bimolecular inhibitory rate constant (ki) values for CPO and DZO. Brain ChE inhibition and ki values following CPO and DZO incubation with neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats rat brain homogenates were determined at post natal day (PND) -5, -12 and -17 and compared with the corresponding inhibition and ki values obtained in the adult rat. A modified Ellman method was utilized for measuring the ChE activity. Chlorpyrifos-oxon resulted in greater ChE inhibition than DZO consistent with the estimated ki values of both compounds. Neonatal brain ChE inhibition kinetics exhibited a marked age-related sensitivity to CPO, where the order of ChE inhibition was PND-5 > PND-7 > PND-17 with ki values of 0.95, 0.50 and 0.22 nM-1hr-1, respectively. In contrast, DZO did not exhibit an age-related inhibition of neonatal brain ChE, and the estimated ki value at all PND ages was 0.02 nM-1hr-1. These results demonstrated an age- and chemical-related OP-selective inhibition of rat brain ChE which may be critically important in understanding the potential sensitivity of juvenile humans to specific OP exposures.},
doi = {10.1093/toxsci/kfl123},
journal = {Toxicological Sciences, 95(1):147-155},
number = 1,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, theremore » are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.« less
  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models have been developed and validated for the organophosphorus (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN). Based on similar pharmacokinetic and mode of action properties it is anticipated that these OPs could interact at a number of important metabolic steps including: CYP450 mediated activation/detoxification, and blood/tissue cholinesterase (ChE) binding/inhibition. We developed a binary PBPK/PD model for CPF, DZN and their metabolites based on previously published models for the individual insecticides. The metabolic interactions (CYP450) between CPF and DZN were evaluated in vitro and suggests that CPF is more substantially metabolized to its oxon metabolite than ismore » DZN. These data are consistent with their observed in vivo relative potency (CPF>DZN). Each insecticide inhibited the other’s in vitro metabolism in a concentration-dependent manner. The PBPK model code used to described the metabolism of CPF and DZN was modified to reflect the type of inhibition kinetics (i.e. competitive vs. non-competitive). The binary model was then evaluated against previously published rodent dosimetry and ChE inhibition data for the mixture. The PBPK/PD model simulations of the acute oral exposure to single- (15 mg/kg) vs. binary-mixtures (15+15 mg/kg) of CFP and DZN at this lower dose resulted in no differences in the predicted pharmacokinetics of either the parent OPs or their respective metabolites; whereas, a binary oral dose of CPF+DZN at 60+60 mg/kg did result in observable changes in the DZN pharmacokinetics. Cmax was more reasonably fit by modifying the absorption parameters. It is anticipated that at low environmentally relevant binary doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental related exposures, that the pharmacokinetics are expected to be linear, and ChE inhibition dose-additive.« less
  • The primary mechanism of action for organophosphorus (OP) insecticides involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by oxygenated metabolites (oxons). This inhibition has been attributed to the phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group located in the active site of the AChE molecule. The rate of phosphorylation is described by the bimolecular inhibitory rate constant (ki), which has been utilized for quantification of OP inhibitory capacity. It has been previously proposed that a peripheral binding site exists on the AChE molecule, which when occupied, reduces the capacity of additional oxon molecules to phosphorylate the active site. The objective of the current studymore » was to evaluate the interaction of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and paraoxon (PO) with rat brain AChE using a modified Ellman assay in conjunction with a pharmacodynamic model to further assess the dynamics of AChE inhibition and the potential role of a peripheral binding site. The ki for AChE inhibition determined at oxon concentrations of 5 x 10{sup -4} 100 nM were 0.212 and 0.0216 nM-1h-1 for CPO and PO, respectively. The spontaneous reactivation rates of the inhibited AChE for CPO and PO were 0.087 and 0.078 h-1, respectively. In contrast, the ki estimated at a low oxon concentration (1 pM) were {approx} 1,000 and 10,000 -fold higher than those determined at high CPO and PO concentrations, respectively. At these low concentrations, the ki estimates were approximately similar for both CPO and PO (180 and 250 nM-1h-1, respectively). This implies that at low exposure concentrations, both oxons exhibited similar inhibitory potency in contrast to the marked difference exhibited at higher concentrations, which is consistent with the presence of a peripheral binding site on the AChE enzyme. These results support the potential importance of a secondary binding site associated with AChE kinetics, particularly at low environmentally relevant concentrations.« less
  • Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are enzymes that belong to the superfamily of alpha/beta-hydrolase fold proteins. While they share many characteristics, they also possess many important differences. For example, whereas they have about 54% amino acid sequence identity, the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase is considerably smaller than that of butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, both have been shown to display simple and complex kinetic mechanisms, depending on the particular substrate examined, the substrate concentration, and incubation conditions. In the current study, incubation of butyrylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.005-3.0 mM, with 317 pM human butyrylcholinesterase in vitro, resulted inmore » rates of production of thiocholine that were accurately described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K{sub m} of 0.10 mM. Similarly, the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vitro by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a k{sub i} of 3048 nM{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a K{sub D} of 2.02 nM. In contrast to inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro followed concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics, with the k{sub i} increasing as the inhibitor concentration decreased. Chlorpyrifos oxon concentrations of 10 and 0.3 nM gave k{sub i}s of 1.2 and 19.3 nM{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively. Although the mechanism of concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics is not known, the much smaller, more restrictive active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase almost certainly plays a role. Similarly, the much larger active site gorge of butyrylcholinesterase likely contributes to its much greater reactivity towards chlorpyrifos oxon, compared to acetylcholinesterase.« less
  • Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 3.1.1.1) metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL,more » EC 3.1.1.23) hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC{sub 50} values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC{sub 50} values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 respectively. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition of three important hydrolytic enzymes by activated metabolites of widely used agrochemicals. -- Highlights: ► IC{sub 50} values and bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) of human recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL proteins and chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon were determined. ► The IC{sub 50} values for the oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL followed the rank order: chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. ► The order of reactivity for the oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. ► Chlorpyrifos oxon was less reactive with MGL than with either CES1 or CES2.« less