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Title: The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

Abstract

Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiationmore » reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Institute of Technology
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
900899
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/15035-1
DE-FG03-00ER15035; TRN: US200722%%278
DOE Contract Number:  
FG02-00ER15035
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; ELECTRODES; ENERGY SOURCES; ENERGY STORAGE; FOSSIL FUELS; FUEL CELLS; HYBRID SYSTEMS; LITHIUM; POWER SYSTEMS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS; Lithium, Battery, Nanophase Anode, Cathode, TEM, Cycle Lifetimes, Phase Stability, Electrode Materials, Olivine, LiFePO4, CiCoO2, EELS,

Citation Formats

Fultz, Brent. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/900899.
Fultz, Brent. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries. United States. doi:10.2172/900899.
Fultz, Brent. Thu . "The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries". United States. doi:10.2172/900899. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/900899.
@article{osti_900899,
title = {The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries},
author = {Fultz, Brent},
abstractNote = {Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.},
doi = {10.2172/900899},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

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