skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spatial And Quantitative Approache to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study Final Report

Abstract

Under the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) states are required to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for waters that are not achieving water quality standards. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive, and allocates the pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a tool to assist in improving the TMDL process. We developed a stakeholder allocation model (SAM) which uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups. We then applied a Geographic Information System (GIS) to visualize the results. We used the Dominguez Channel Watershed in Los Angeles County, CA as our case study.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
900859
Report Number(s):
UCRL-TR-227838
TRN: US200711%%728
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CLEAN WATER ACTS; GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; POLLUTANTS; WATER; WATER QUALITY; WATERSHEDS

Citation Formats

Stewart, J, Baginski, T, Sicherman, A, Greene, G, and Smith, A. Spatial And Quantitative Approache to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study Final Report. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/900859.
Stewart, J, Baginski, T, Sicherman, A, Greene, G, & Smith, A. Spatial And Quantitative Approache to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study Final Report. United States. doi:10.2172/900859.
Stewart, J, Baginski, T, Sicherman, A, Greene, G, and Smith, A. Mon . "Spatial And Quantitative Approache to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study Final Report". United States. doi:10.2172/900859. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/900859.
@article{osti_900859,
title = {Spatial And Quantitative Approache to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study Final Report},
author = {Stewart, J and Baginski, T and Sicherman, A and Greene, G and Smith, A},
abstractNote = {Under the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) states are required to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for waters that are not achieving water quality standards. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive, and allocates the pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a tool to assist in improving the TMDL process. We developed a stakeholder allocation model (SAM) which uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups. We then applied a Geographic Information System (GIS) to visualize the results. We used the Dominguez Channel Watershed in Los Angeles County, CA as our case study.},
doi = {10.2172/900859},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 05 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Feb 05 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • The Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d)(1)(A) requires each state to identify those waters that are not achieving water quality standards. The result of this assessment is called the 303(d) list. The CWA also requires states to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for these waters on the 303(d) list. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards, and allocates the pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources. Nationwide, over 34,900 segments of waterways have been listed as impaired by the Environmental Protection Agencymore » (EPA 2006). The EPA enlists state agencies and local communities to submit TMDL plans to reduce discharges by specified dates or have them developed by the EPA. The Department of Energy requested Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop appropriate tools to assist in improving the TMDL process. An investigation of this process by LLNL found that plans to reduce discharges were being developed based on a wide range of site investigation methods. Our investigation found that given the resources available to the interested and responsible parties, developing a quantitative stakeholder input process and using visualization tools to display quantitative information could improve the acceptability of TMDL plans. We developed a stakeholder allocation model (SAM) which uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups. We then applied GIS to display allocation options in maps representing economic activity, community groups, and city agencies. This allows allocation options and stakeholder concerns to be represented in both space and time. The primary goal of this tool is to provide a quantitative and visual display of stakeholder concerns over possible TMDL options.« less
  • The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d)(1)(A) requires each state to conduct a biennial assessment of its waters, and identify those waters that are not achieving water quality standards. The result of this assessment is called the 303(d) list. The CWA also requires states to establish a priority ranking for waters on the 303(d) list of impaired waters and to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for these waters. Over 30,000 segments of waterways have been listed as impaired by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA has requested local communities to submit plans to reduce dischargesmore » by specified dates or have them developed by the EPA. An investigation of this process found that plans to reduce discharges were being developed based on a wide range of site investigation methods. The Department of Energy requested Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop appropriate tools to assist in improving the TMDL process. The EPA has shown support and encouragement of this effort. Our investigation found that given the resources available to the interested and responsible parties, developing a quantitative stakeholder input process could improve the acceptability of TMDL plans. The first model that we have developed is a stakeholder allocation model (SAM). The SAM uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups, and develop both individual stakeholder group utility functions and an overall stakeholder utility function for a watershed. The test site we selected was the Dominquez Channel watershed in Los Angeles, California. The major stakeholder groups interviewed were (1) non-profit organizations, (2) industry, (3) government agencies and (4) the city government. The decision-maker that will recommend a final TMDL plan is the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (LARWQCB). The preliminary results have shown that stakeholders can have different preferences, especially in the areas of scheduling and cost of the implementation plan. The SAM model gives the decision maker the ability to see how the different TMDL plans rank in order of preference from the perspective of each stakeholder and also to evaluate tradeoffs in selecting a plan that maximizes overall utility. We have included a preliminary example comparing two TMDL plans based on the decision makers' preferences but, final decisions are not disclosed in this paper due to ongoing negotiations by the stakeholders.« less
  • The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d)(1)(A) requires each state to conduct a biennial assessment of its waters, and identify those waters that are not achieving water quality standards. The result of this assessment is called the 303(d) list. The CWA also requires states to establish a priority ranking for waters on the 303(d) list of impaired waters and to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for these waters. Over 30,000 segments of waterways have been listed as impaired by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA has requested local communities to submit plans to reduce dischargesmore » by specified dates or have them developed by the EPA. An investigation of this process found that plans to reduce discharges were being developed based on a wide range of site investigation methods. The Department of Energy requested Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop appropriate tools to assist in improving the TMDL process. The EPA has shown support and encouragement of this effort. Our investigation found that improving the stakeholder input process would facilitate many of the TMDL processes, given the resources available to the interested and responsible parties. The first model that we have developed is a stakeholder allocation model (SAM). The SAM uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups, and develop both individual stakeholder group utility functions and overall stakeholder utility function for a watershed. The test site we selected was the Dominquez Channel watershed in Los Angeles, California. The major stakeholder groups interviewed were (1) nongovernmental organizations, (2) oil refineries, (3) the Port of Los Angeles, and (4) the Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The decision-maker that will determine the acceptable utility values is the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Board. The preliminary results have shown some different values among stakeholders, especially in the areas of scheduling and cost of the implementation plan. However, the attribute list has also identified the value or importance of each area, giving the decision-maker the ability to make tradeoffs to maximize the groups overall utility. Final decisions are not disclosed in this paper due to ongoing negotiations by the stakeholders.« less
  • The results of a conceptual design study on incorporating a pyrolysis unit into an existing total energy plant are presented. The objectives of this study were to examine the institutional, technical and economic factors affecting the incorporation of a 25-ton/day pyrolysis unit into the Indian Creek Total Energy Plant. The Indian Creek total energy plant is described. Results of the conceptual design are presented. A survey of the availability of waste materials and a review of health and safety ordinances are included. The technical aspects of the pyrolysis system are discussed, including the results of the review of facilities requirementsmore » for the pyrolysis unit, the analysis of necessary system modification, and an estimate of the useful energy contribution by the pyrolysis unit. Results of the life-cycle cost analysis of the pyrolysis unit are presented. The major conclusions are that: there appears to be no institutional or technical barriers to constructing a waste pyrolysis unit at the Indian Creek Total Energy Plant; pyrolysis gas can be consumed in the engines and the boilers by utilizing venturi mixing devices; the engines can consume only 5% of the output of the 25-ton/day pyrolysis unit; Therefore, consumption of pyrolysis gas will be controlled by boiler energy demand patterns; a waste pyrolysis unit is not cost effective at the current natural gas price of $0.90/10/sup 6/ Btu; and pyrolysis is economically attractive at natural gas prices above $3.00/10/sup 6/ Btu.« less
  • WARMF (Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework) is a decision support system that can guide stakeholders to a consensus watershed management plan. All necessary databases, simulation models, and graphical software are integrated into a Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI). The models, embedded in WARMF, can educate stakeholders on how meteorology generates hydrology and nonpoint loads; how land use affects nonpoint loads; how point and nonpoint loads are spatially distributed; how point and nonpoint loads translates to water quality in rivers and lakes; and whether the water quality is suitable for intended uses. The reliability of the models can be checked bymore » comparing the simulated results to the observed data. The road map of the consensus process contains 7 steps. In each step, WARMF presents stakeholders with relevant information so that they can understand and make informed decisions. The TMDL calculation sheet provides a step by step procedure to evaluate the total maximum daily load of various pollutants for a series of control points, progressing from upstream to downstream in a river basin. A context sensitive help menu is provided for every task. An uncertainty analysis can be performed to evaluate the chance of failure for a management plan that may involve multi-million dollars of private and public investment. WARMF has been applied to Catawba River Basin of North and South Carolina, Holston River Basin of Virginia and Tennessee, Hockanum River Basin of Connecticut and the Techi Watershed of Taiwan.« less