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Title: Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

Abstract

Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) Themore » key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is demonstrated at the SNL Z-IFE LTD laboratory with rep-rates up to 10.3 seconds between shots (this is essentially at the goal of 10 seconds for Z-IFE). (7) A single LTD switch at Tomsk was fired repetitively every 12 seconds for 36,000 shots with no failures. (8) Five 1.0 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavities have been combined into a voltage adder configuration with a test load to successfully study the system operation. (9) The combination of multiple LTD coaxial lines into a tri-plate transmission line is examined. The 3D Quicksilver code is used to study the electron flow losses produced near the magnetic nulls that occur where coax LTD lines are added together. (10) Circuit model codes are used to model the complete power flow circuit with an inductive isolator cavity. (11) LTD architectures are presented for drivers for Z-IFE and high yield. A 60 MA LTD driver and a 90 MA LTD driver are proposed. Present results from all of these power flow studies validate the whole LTD/RTL concept for single-shot ICF high yield, and for repetitive-shot IFE.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [4];  [1]; ;  [8]; ;  [9];  [4];  [10];  [7];  [11] more »;  [11]; ; ; « less
  1. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia)
  2. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC)
  3. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC)
  4. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM)
  5. (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia)
  6. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)
  7. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)
  8. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia)
  9. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia)
  10. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL)
  11. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
900850
Report Number(s):
SAND2007-0059
TRN: US0702419
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; ABLATION; DEFECTS; DIFFUSION; ELECTRONS; HYDROGEN PRODUCTION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC INSULATION; OPTIMIZATION; POWER PLANTS; POWER TRANSMISSION LINES; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; TRANSFORMERS; TRANSMUTATION; Electric power production.; Fusion reactors-Research.; Transmission lines.

Citation Formats

Sharpe, Robin Arthur, Kingsep, Alexander S., Smith, David Lewis, Olson, Craig Lee, Ottinger, Paul F., Schumer, Joseph Wade, Welch, Dale Robert, Kim, Alexander, Kulcinski, Gerald L., Kammer, Daniel C., Rose, David Vincent, Nedoseev, Sergei L., Pointon, Timothy David, Smirnov, Valentin P., Turgeon, Matthew C., Kalinin, Yuri G., Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki", Barkey, Mark E., Guthrie, Michael, Thoma, Carsten, Genoni, Tom C., Langston, William L., Fowler, William E., and Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/900850.
Sharpe, Robin Arthur, Kingsep, Alexander S., Smith, David Lewis, Olson, Craig Lee, Ottinger, Paul F., Schumer, Joseph Wade, Welch, Dale Robert, Kim, Alexander, Kulcinski, Gerald L., Kammer, Daniel C., Rose, David Vincent, Nedoseev, Sergei L., Pointon, Timothy David, Smirnov, Valentin P., Turgeon, Matthew C., Kalinin, Yuri G., Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki", Barkey, Mark E., Guthrie, Michael, Thoma, Carsten, Genoni, Tom C., Langston, William L., Fowler, William E., & Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.. United States. doi:10.2172/900850.
Sharpe, Robin Arthur, Kingsep, Alexander S., Smith, David Lewis, Olson, Craig Lee, Ottinger, Paul F., Schumer, Joseph Wade, Welch, Dale Robert, Kim, Alexander, Kulcinski, Gerald L., Kammer, Daniel C., Rose, David Vincent, Nedoseev, Sergei L., Pointon, Timothy David, Smirnov, Valentin P., Turgeon, Matthew C., Kalinin, Yuri G., Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki", Barkey, Mark E., Guthrie, Michael, Thoma, Carsten, Genoni, Tom C., Langston, William L., Fowler, William E., and Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos. Mon . "Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.". United States. doi:10.2172/900850. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/900850.
@article{osti_900850,
title = {Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.},
author = {Sharpe, Robin Arthur and Kingsep, Alexander S. and Smith, David Lewis and Olson, Craig Lee and Ottinger, Paul F. and Schumer, Joseph Wade and Welch, Dale Robert and Kim, Alexander and Kulcinski, Gerald L. and Kammer, Daniel C. and Rose, David Vincent and Nedoseev, Sergei L. and Pointon, Timothy David and Smirnov, Valentin P. and Turgeon, Matthew C. and Kalinin, Yuri G. and Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" and Barkey, Mark E. and Guthrie, Michael and Thoma, Carsten and Genoni, Tom C. and Langston, William L. and Fowler, William E. and Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos},
abstractNote = {Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is demonstrated at the SNL Z-IFE LTD laboratory with rep-rates up to 10.3 seconds between shots (this is essentially at the goal of 10 seconds for Z-IFE). (7) A single LTD switch at Tomsk was fired repetitively every 12 seconds for 36,000 shots with no failures. (8) Five 1.0 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavities have been combined into a voltage adder configuration with a test load to successfully study the system operation. (9) The combination of multiple LTD coaxial lines into a tri-plate transmission line is examined. The 3D Quicksilver code is used to study the electron flow losses produced near the magnetic nulls that occur where coax LTD lines are added together. (10) Circuit model codes are used to model the complete power flow circuit with an inductive isolator cavity. (11) LTD architectures are presented for drivers for Z-IFE and high yield. A 60 MA LTD driver and a 90 MA LTD driver are proposed. Present results from all of these power flow studies validate the whole LTD/RTL concept for single-shot ICF high yield, and for repetitive-shot IFE.},
doi = {10.2172/900850},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

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