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Title: Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

Abstract

Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up tomore » four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Western Research Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
900188
DOE Contract Number:  
FC26-98FT40323
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHRONIC EXPOSURE; EVAPORATION; FLUE GAS; FUME HOODS; INHALATION; MASS TRANSFER; MERCURY; MERCURY COMPOUNDS; OXIDATION; PLASMA JETS; REACTION KINETICS; REMOVAL; SURFACE WATERS

Citation Formats

Mones, Charles. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/900188.
Mones, Charles. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device. United States. doi:10.2172/900188.
Mones, Charles. Fri . "Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device". United States. doi:10.2172/900188. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/900188.
@article{osti_900188,
title = {Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device},
author = {Mones, Charles},
abstractNote = {Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.},
doi = {10.2172/900188},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {12}
}