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Title: Advanced refractory liners for slagging gasifiers

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
899257
Report Number(s):
DOE/ARC-2005-092
Journal ID: ISSN 0009-0220; R&D Project: AMP-006; TRN: US200720%%352
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Ceramic Industry; Journal Volume: 155; Journal Issue: 8; Related Information: Author is not cited on the article, which the magazine shortened. Original title was Advanced refractories for IGCC slagging gasifiers
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 02 PETROLEUM; COAL GASIFICATION; COMBINED-CYCLE POWER PLANTS; GAS GENERATORS; LINERS; REFRACTORIES; advanced refractory; IGCC; slagging gasifier

Citation Formats

Bennett, James P. Advanced refractory liners for slagging gasifiers. United States: N. p., 2005. Web.
Bennett, James P. Advanced refractory liners for slagging gasifiers. United States.
Bennett, James P. Mon . "Advanced refractory liners for slagging gasifiers". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_899257,
title = {Advanced refractory liners for slagging gasifiers},
author = {Bennett, James P.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {Ceramic Industry},
number = 8,
volume = 155,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2005},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2005}
}
  • This report is a brief review of the ORNL Engineering Evaluation of IITRI Project on Design, Engineering and Evaluation of Refractory Liners for Slagging Gasifiers, and is limited to safety and hazard analysis. The major finding is that the existing project cannot provide a safe operating environment chiefly due to inadequate documentation and safety and hazard analysis.
  • Refractory liners are used on the working face of entrained flow slagging gasifiers that react coal, petroleum coke, or other carbon feedstock with oxygen and water. The refractory liners protect the gasifier shell from elevated temperatures, corrosive slags, and thermal cycling during gasification. Refractory failure is primarily by two means, corrosive dissolution and spalling. High chrome oxide refractory materials have evolved as the material of choice to line the hot face of gasifiers, yet the performance of these materials does not meet the service requirements of industry. A review of gasifier liner materials, their evolution, issues impacting their performance, andmore » future research direction are discussed.« less
  • Slagging coal gasifiers suffer corrosive attack on the refractory liner and these interactions were thermochemically simulated. The slag is observed to penetrate the refractory, which complicates modeling the phase behavior of the slag-penetrated interior of the refractory. A simple strategy was adopted such that step-wise changes in composition with decreasing slag content were assumed to account for the compositional changes as slag penetrates the refractory. The thermochemical equilibrium calculations following this strategy typically yielded three solution phases as well as the stoichiometric crystalline phases AlPO4 and Ca3(PO4)2 depending on composition/penetration. Under some conditions a slag liquid miscibility gap exists suchmore » that two slag liquids co-exist.« less
  • The economic viability of converting coal into clean burning liquid fuels in slagging coal gasifiers is compromised by the limited service lifetime of hot-face refractories. One of the most severe refractory degradation mechanisms is spalling, which can occur by either volume expansion phenomena (compressive stresses) or by volume shrinkage phenomena (tensile stresses). A volume shrinkage model is benchmarked to high-chromia refractory material properties and performance under gasifier operating conditions. The model is found to be appropriate for first order estimates of gasifier refractory lifetime when the apparent diffusivity of volatized Cr in the refractory includes the effects of slag-filled poresmore » and cracks.« less
  • Temperatures in slagging gasifiers are in the 2500/sup 0/ to 3300/sup 0/F range which limits the materials which can be used. In addition the combination of high pressure (up to 1500 psi) with water vapor and the presence of carbon monoxide and hydrogen can present corrosion problems for refractories. The silica in aluminum silicate materials is chemically attacked by hydrogen and may be removed either by formation of volatile silicon monoxide, or hydrosilicic acid, which is leached out and redeposited in another area of gasifier. The action of carbon monoxide on iron compounds in refractories is also disruptive. Low iron,more » high alumina refractories are the presently preferred materials for coal gasification plants. The atmospheres and other conditions found in vessels used in coal gasification require the use of dense and insulating high Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ refractory shapes and castables. Low SiO/sub 2/ and low Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ refractories are necessary to resist steam and CO. In processes that involve molten carbonates or where slag may run down walls, fused cast Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is used to avoid corrosion and erosion. However, considerable research is required to establish optimum refractory systems and design methods for slagging coal gasifiers.« less