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Title: Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs

Abstract

Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water,formation of hydrates, and fracturing due to thermal stresses. The TOUGH2/EOS7C module for CO2-CH4-H2O mixtures is used as the simulation analysis tool. For verification of EOS7C, the classic Joule-Thomson expansion experiment is modeled for pure CO2 resulting in Joule-Thomson coefficients in agreement with standard references to within 5-7 percent. For demonstration purposes, CO2 injection at constant pressure and with a large pressure drop ({approx}50 bars) is presented in order to show that cooling by more than 20 C can occur by this effect. Two more-realistic constant-rate injection cases show that for typical systems in the Sacramento Valley, California, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is minimal. This simulation study shows that for constant-rate injections into high-permeability reservoirs, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is not expected to create significant problems for CSEGR.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy. Office of Coaland Power Systems. National Energy Technology Laboratory
OSTI Identifier:
898956
Report Number(s):
LBNL-60158
R&D Project: G20903; BnR: AA3010000; TRN: US200706%%459
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: TOUGH Symposium 2006, Berkeley, CA, 15-17 May2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON SEQUESTRATION; FRACTURING; FREEZING; HYDRATES; MIXTURES; NATURAL GAS; PERMEABILITY; PRESSURE DROP; SIMULATION; TARGETS; THERMAL STRESSES; VERIFICATION

Citation Formats

Oldenburg, Curtis M. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Oldenburg, Curtis M. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs. United States.
Oldenburg, Curtis M. Fri . "Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/898956.
@article{osti_898956,
title = {Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs},
author = {Oldenburg, Curtis M.},
abstractNote = {Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water,formation of hydrates, and fracturing due to thermal stresses. The TOUGH2/EOS7C module for CO2-CH4-H2O mixtures is used as the simulation analysis tool. For verification of EOS7C, the classic Joule-Thomson expansion experiment is modeled for pure CO2 resulting in Joule-Thomson coefficients in agreement with standard references to within 5-7 percent. For demonstration purposes, CO2 injection at constant pressure and with a large pressure drop ({approx}50 bars) is presented in order to show that cooling by more than 20 C can occur by this effect. Two more-realistic constant-rate injection cases show that for typical systems in the Sacramento Valley, California, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is minimal. This simulation study shows that for constant-rate injections into high-permeability reservoirs, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is not expected to create significant problems for CSEGR.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Fri Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • Mathematical tools are needed to screen out sites where Joule-Thomson cooling is a prohibitive factor for CO{sub 2} geo-sequestration and to design approaches to mitigate the effect. In this paper, a simple analytical solution is developed by invoking steady-state flow and constant thermophysical properties. The analytical solution allows fast evaluation of spatiotemporal temperature fields, resulting from constant-rate CO{sub 2} injection. The applicability of the analytical solution is demonstrated by comparison with non-isothermal simulation results from the reservoir simulator TOUGH2. Analysis confirms that for an injection rate of 3 kg s{sup -1} (0.1 MT yr{sup -1}) into moderately warm (>40 C)more » and permeable formations (>10{sup -14} m{sup 2} (10 mD)), JTC is unlikely to be a problem for initial reservoir pressures as low as 2 MPa (290 psi).« less
  • This study shows how knowledge of the Joule-Thomson effect can aid temperature log interpretation. The effect is a cooling of produced or injected gas, or a warming of injected water, due to pressure drop in flow through the formation and perforations. This influences shut-in temperature behavior, and thus is important in temperature log interpretation. A key conclusion is that the shut-in temperature profile is influenced not only by the previous flow rate profile, but also by the permeability profile. Methods for quantitative interpretation (i.e., determination of injection rate profiles) are reviewed, in light of this conclusion. (22 refs.)
  • This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX asmore » part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.« less
  • This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the JouleThomson cooling of normal hydrogen and deoterium from an initial temperature of 64 deg K. Below 70 atm the cooling is greater for H/sub 2/ than for D/sub 2/, but at higher pressures it is less. It is found that the difference at low pressures is due to the lower heat capacity of H/sub 2/, associated with the more quantized rotation of its molecules. The difference at high pressures is due to the less negative enthalpy of imperfection of H/, and this in turn can be attributed to the higher zero-point energymore » for translational motion in the lighter isotope. Both differences can be accounted for quantitatively. (auth)« less
  • Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The data covered a range of inlet and outlet operating conditions. The mass flow rate range single phase or two phase was 0.015 to 0.98 lbm/hr. The manufacturer's equation was found to overpredict the single phase hydrogen data by 10 percentmore » and the two phase data by as much as 27 percent. Two modifications of the equation resulted in a data correlation that predicts both the single and two phase flow across the visco jet. The first modification was of a theoretical nature, and the second strictly empirical. The former reduced the spread in the two phase data. It was a multiplication factor of 1-X applied to the manufacturer's equation. The parameter X is the flow quality downstream of the visco jet based on isenthalpic expansion across the device. The latter modification was a 10 percent correction term that correlated 90 percent of the single and two phase data to within +/- 10 percent scatter band. 3 refs.« less