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Title: Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm DenseMatter

Abstract

One approach for heating a target to ''Warm Dense Matter'' conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in inertial confinement fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam phase-space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state and relations for ion stopping, approximate conditions at the target foil may be calculated. Thus, target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We connect some of these basic parameters to help search the extensive parameter space including ion mass, ion energy, total charge in beam pulse, beam emittance, target thickness and density.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Director. Office of Science. Office of AdvancedScientific Computing Research. Office of Fusion EnergySciences
OSTI Identifier:
898562
Report Number(s):
LBNL-59432; HIFAN 1436
R&D Project: Z41003; BnR: AT5015031; TRN: US0701678
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, Knoxville,TN, May 16-20, 2005
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BEAM EMITTANCE; EQUATIONS OF STATE; HEATING; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; ION BEAMS; PHASE SPACE; PLANETS; TARGETS; THICKNESS; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Barnard, J.J., Briggs, R.J., Callahan, D.A., Davidson, R.C., Friedman, A., Grisham, L., Lee, E.P., Lee, R.W., Logan, B.G., Olson,C.L., Rose, D.V., Santhanam, P., Sessler, A.M., Staples, J.W., Tabak, M., Welch, D.R., Wurtele, J.S., and Yu, S.S. Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm DenseMatter. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Barnard, J.J., Briggs, R.J., Callahan, D.A., Davidson, R.C., Friedman, A., Grisham, L., Lee, E.P., Lee, R.W., Logan, B.G., Olson,C.L., Rose, D.V., Santhanam, P., Sessler, A.M., Staples, J.W., Tabak, M., Welch, D.R., Wurtele, J.S., & Yu, S.S. Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm DenseMatter. United States.
Barnard, J.J., Briggs, R.J., Callahan, D.A., Davidson, R.C., Friedman, A., Grisham, L., Lee, E.P., Lee, R.W., Logan, B.G., Olson,C.L., Rose, D.V., Santhanam, P., Sessler, A.M., Staples, J.W., Tabak, M., Welch, D.R., Wurtele, J.S., and Yu, S.S. Mon . "Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm DenseMatter". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/898562.
@article{osti_898562,
title = {Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm DenseMatter},
author = {Barnard, J.J. and Briggs, R.J. and Callahan, D.A. and Davidson, R.C. and Friedman, A. and Grisham, L. and Lee, E.P. and Lee, R.W. and Logan, B.G. and Olson,C.L. and Rose, D.V. and Santhanam, P. and Sessler, A.M. and Staples, J.W. and Tabak, M. and Welch, D.R. and Wurtele, J.S. and Yu, S.S.},
abstractNote = {One approach for heating a target to ''Warm Dense Matter'' conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in inertial confinement fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam phase-space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state and relations for ion stopping, approximate conditions at the target foil may be calculated. Thus, target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We connect some of these basic parameters to help search the extensive parameter space including ion mass, ion energy, total charge in beam pulse, beam emittance, target thickness and density.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

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  • One approach for heating a target to ''Warm Dense Matter'' conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam phase space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state and relations for ion stopping, approximate conditions at a target foil may be calculated. Thus target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function ofmore » ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We connect some of these basic parameters to help search the extensive parameter space (including ion mass, ion energy, total charge in beam pulse, beam emittance, target thickness and density).« less
  • A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K{sup +}) and low normalized emittance (< 1 {pi} mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements ofmore » voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented.« less
  • Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam targetmore » coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.« less
  • Experimental equation-of-state (EOS) data are difficult to obtain for warm dense matter (WDM)–ionized materials at near-solid densities and temperatures ranging from a few to tens of electron volts–due to the difficulty in preparing suitable plasmas without significant density gradients and transient phenomena. We propose that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility can be used to create a temporally stationary and spatially uniform WDM. DARHT has an 18 MeV electron beam with 2 kA of current and a programmable pulse length of 20 ns to 200 ns. This poster describes how Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport and LASNEXmore » hydrodynamics codes were used to demonstrate that the DARHT beam is favorable for avoiding the problems that have hindered past attempts to constrain WDM properties. In our concept, a 60 ns pulse of electrons is focused onto a small, cylindrical (1 mm diameter × 1 mm long) foam target, which is inside a stiff high-heat capacity tube that both confines the WDM and allows pressure measurements. In our model, the foam is made of 30% density Au and the tamper is a B4C tube. An MCNP model of the DARHT beam investigated electron collisions and the amount of energy deposited in the foam target. The MCNP data became the basis for a LASNEX source model, where the total energy was distributed over a 60 ns time-dependent linear ramp consistent with the DARHT pulse. We used LASNEX to calculate the evolution of the foam EOS properties during and after deposition. Besides indicating that a ~3 eV Au plasma can be achieved, LASNEX models also showed that the WDM generates a shock wave into the tamper whose speed can be measured using photonic Doppler velocimetry. EOS pressures can be identified to better than 10% precision. These pressures can be correlated to energy deposition with electron spectrometry in order to obtain the Au EOS. Radial uniformity in the DARHT beam was also investigated. To further obtain uniform radial energy deposition, MCNP calculations were carried out with radial beam filters. Results are presented.« less
  • The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaborationof LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, has achieved 60-fold pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In NDCX, a ramped voltage pulse from an induction cell imparts a velocity"tilt" to the beam; the beam's tail then catches up with its head in a plasma environment that provides neutralization. The HIFS-VNL's mission is to carry out studies of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics using ion beams as the energy source; an emerging thrust is basic target physics for heavy ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Thesemore » goals require an improved platform, labeled NDCX-II. Development of NDCX-II at modest cost was recently enabled by the availability of induction cells and associated hardware from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) facility at LLNL. Our initial physics design concept accelerates a ~;;30 nC pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;3 MeV, then compresses it to ~;;1 ns while focusing it onto a mm-scale spot. It uses the ATA cells themselves (with waveforms shaped by passive circuits) to impart the final velocity tilt; smart pulsers provide small corrections. The ATA accelerated electrons; acceleration of non-relativistic ions involves more complex beam dynamics both transversely and longitudinally. We are using analysis, an interactive one-dimensional kinetic simulation model, and multidimensional Warp-code simulations to develop the NDCX-II accelerator section. Both LSP and Warp codes are being applied to the beam dynamics in the neutralized drift and final focus regions, and the plasma injection process. The status of this effort is described.« less