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Title: Multiple-estimate Monte Carlo calculation of the dose rate constant for a cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to calculate a more accurate dose rate constant for the Cs-131 (model CS-1, IsoRay Medical, Inc., Richland, Washington) interstitial brachytherapy seed. Previous measurements of the dose rate constant for this seed have been reported by others with incongruity. Recent direct measurements by thermoluminescence dosimetry and by gamma-ray spectroscopy were about 15 percent greater than earlier thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements. Therefore, we set about to calculate independent values by a Monte Carlo approach that combined three estimates as a consistency check, and to quantify the computational uncertainty. The calculated dose rate constant for the Cs-131 seed was 1.040 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} for an ionization chamber model and 1.032 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} for a circular ring model. A formal value of 2.2% uncertainty was calculated for both values. The range of our multi-estimate values were from 1.032 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} to 1.061 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1}. We also modeled three I-125 seeds with known dose rate constants to test the accuracy of this study's approach.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
898096
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-48677
600301010; TRN: US0701563
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics, 34(1):49-54
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BRACHYTHERAPY; CESIUM 131; DOSE RATES; DOSIMETRY; MONTE CARLO METHOD; Cesium-131 seed; dosimetry; brachytherapy; Monte Carlo; MCNP

Citation Formats

Wittman, Richard S., and Fisher, Darrell R. Multiple-estimate Monte Carlo calculation of the dose rate constant for a cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2401653.
Wittman, Richard S., & Fisher, Darrell R. Multiple-estimate Monte Carlo calculation of the dose rate constant for a cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2401653.
Wittman, Richard S., and Fisher, Darrell R. 2007. "Multiple-estimate Monte Carlo calculation of the dose rate constant for a cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2401653.
@article{osti_898096,
title = {Multiple-estimate Monte Carlo calculation of the dose rate constant for a cesium-131 interstitial brachytherapy seed},
author = {Wittman, Richard S. and Fisher, Darrell R.},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this study was to calculate a more accurate dose rate constant for the Cs-131 (model CS-1, IsoRay Medical, Inc., Richland, Washington) interstitial brachytherapy seed. Previous measurements of the dose rate constant for this seed have been reported by others with incongruity. Recent direct measurements by thermoluminescence dosimetry and by gamma-ray spectroscopy were about 15 percent greater than earlier thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements. Therefore, we set about to calculate independent values by a Monte Carlo approach that combined three estimates as a consistency check, and to quantify the computational uncertainty. The calculated dose rate constant for the Cs-131 seed was 1.040 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} for an ionization chamber model and 1.032 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} for a circular ring model. A formal value of 2.2% uncertainty was calculated for both values. The range of our multi-estimate values were from 1.032 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1} to 1.061 cGy h^{-1} U^{-1}. We also modeled three I-125 seeds with known dose rate constants to test the accuracy of this study's approach.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2401653},
journal = {Medical Physics, 34(1):49-54},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2007,
month = 1
}
  • The aim of this work was to conduct an independent determination of the dose rate constant of the newly introduced Model CS-1 {sup 131}Cs seed. A total of eight {sup 131}Cs seeds were obtained from the seed manufacturer. The air-kerma strength of each seed was measured by the manufacturer whose calibration is traceable to the air-kerma strength standard established for the {sup 131}Cs seeds at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1{sigma} uncertainty <1%). The dose rate constant of each seed was measured by two independent methods: One based on the actual photon energy spectrum emitted by the seedmore » using gamma-ray spectrometry and the other based on the dose-rate measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) in a Solid Water{sup TM} phantom. The dose rate constant in water determined by the gamma-ray spectrometry technique and by the TLD dosimetry are 1.066{+-}0.064 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1} and 1.058{+-}0.106 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1}, respectively, showing excellent agreement with each other. These values, however, are approximately 15% greater than a previously reported value of 0.915 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1} [Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)]. Although low-energy fluorescent x rays at 16.6 and 18.7 keV, originating from niobium present in the seed construction, were measured in the energy spectrum of the {sup 131}Cs seeds, their yields were not sufficient to lower the dose rate constant to the value of 0.915 cGyh{sup -1}U{sup -1}. Additional determinations of the dose rate constant may be needed to establish an AAPM recommended consensus value for routine clinical use of the {sup 131}Cs seed.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Purpose: Acuros BV has become available to perform accurate dose calculations in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with phantom heterogeneity considered by solving the Boltzmann transport equation. In this work, we performed validation studies regarding the dose calculation accuracy of Acuros BV in cases with a shielded cylinder applicator using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Fifteen cases were considered in our studies, covering five different diameters of the applicator and three different shielding degrees. For each case, a digital phantom was created in Varian BrachyVision with the cylinder applicator inserted in the middle of a large water phantom. A treatment plan withmore » eight dwell positions was generated for these fifteen cases. Dose calculations were performed with Acuros BV. We then generated a voxelized phantom of the same geometry, and the materials were modeled according to the vendor’s specifications. MC dose calculations were then performed using our in-house developed fast MC dose engine for HDR brachytherapy (gBMC) on a GPU platform, which is able to simulate both photon transport and electron transport in a voxelized geometry. A phase-space file for the Ir-192 HDR source was used as a source model for MC simulations. Results: Satisfactory agreements between the dose distributions calculated by Acuros BV and those calculated by gBMC were observed in all cases. Quantitatively, we computed point-wise dose difference within the region that receives a dose higher than 10% of the reference dose, defined to be the dose at 5mm outward away from the applicator surface. The mean dose difference was ∼0.45%–0.51% and the 95-percentile maximum difference was ∼1.24%–1.47%. Conclusion: Acuros BV is able to accurately perform dose calculations in HDR brachytherapy with a shielded cylinder applicator.« less
  • Purpose: An improvement in tissue assignment for low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDRB) patients using more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation was accomplished with a metallic artifact reduction (MAR) method specific to dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: The proposed MAR algorithm followed a four-step procedure. The first step involved applying a weighted blend of both DECT scans (I {sub H/L}) to generate a new image (I {sub Mix}). This action minimized Hounsfield unit (HU) variations surrounding the brachytherapy seeds. In the second step, the mean HU of the prostate in I {sub Mix} was calculated and shifted toward the mean HUmore » of the two original DECT images (I {sub H/L}). The third step involved smoothing the newly shifted I {sub Mix} and the two original I {sub H/L}, followed by a subtraction of both, generating an image that represented the metallic artifact (I {sub A,(H/L)}) of reduced noise levels. The final step consisted of subtracting the original I {sub H/L} from the newly generated I {sub A,(H/L)} and obtaining a final image corrected for metallic artifacts. Following the completion of the algorithm, a DECT stoichiometric method was used to extract the relative electronic density (ρ{sub e}) and effective atomic number (Z {sub eff}) at each voxel of the corrected scans. Tissue assignment could then be determined with these two newly acquired physical parameters. Each voxel was assigned the tissue bearing the closest resemblance in terms of ρ{sub e} and Z {sub eff}, comparing with values from the ICRU 42 database. A MC study was then performed to compare the dosimetric impacts of alternative MAR algorithms. Results: An improvement in tissue assignment was observed with the DECT MAR algorithm, compared to the single-energy computed tomography (SECT) approach. In a phantom study, tissue misassignment was found to reach 0.05% of voxels using the DECT approach, compared with 0.40% using the SECT method. Comparison of the DECT and SECT D {sub 90} dose parameter (volume receiving 90% of the dose) indicated that D {sub 90} could be underestimated by up to 2.3% using the SECT method. Conclusions: The DECT MAR approach is a simple alternative to reduce metallic artifacts found in LDRB patient scans. Images can be processed quickly and do not require the determination of x-ray spectra. Substantial information on density and atomic number can also be obtained. Furthermore, calcifications within the prostate are detected by the tissue assignment algorithm. This enables more accurate, patient-specific MC dose calculations.« less
  • Monte Carlo simulation and experimental thermoluminescence dosimetry were utilized for the dosimetric characterization of the new IsoSeed registered model I25.S17 {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy seed. The new seed design is similar to that of the selectSeed and 6711 seeds, with the exception of its molybdenum marker. Full dosimetric data are presented following the recommendations in the Update of the AAPM Task Group 43 report (TG-43U1). A difference of 3.3% was found between Monte Carlo dose rate constant results calculated by air kerma strengths from simulations using a point detector and a detector resembling the solid angle subtended to the seedmore » by the Wide Angle Free Air Chamber (WAFAC) in the primary standard calibration geometry. Following the TG-43U1 recommendations, an average value of {lambda}{sub MC}=(0.929{+-}0.014) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} was adopted for the new seed. This value was then averaged with the measured value of {lambda}{sub EXP}=(0.951{+-}0.044) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} to yield the proposed dose rate constant for the new seed that is equal to {lambda}=(0.940{+-}0.051) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The Monte Carlo calculated radial dose function and two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropy function results for the new seed were found in agreement with experimental results to within statistical uncertainty of repeated measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed for {sup 125}I seeds of similar geometry and dimensions for the purpose of comparison. The new seed presents dosimetric characteristics that are very similar to that of the selectSeed. In comparison to the most extensively studied Amersham 6711 seed, the new one presents similar dosimetric characteristics with a slightly reduced dose rate constant (1.5%)« less