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Title: Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays

Abstract

X-ray–sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. New film becomes available as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a “T-grain” class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF film. A model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, SEM micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to “T-grain” type film.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochseter
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
897882
Report Number(s):
DOE/SF/19460-720
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK; 1682; 2006-17; TRN: US0703496
DOE Contract Number:
FC52-92SF19460
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 77; Conference: 16th Topical Conference on High-Temperature Diagnostics, Williamsburg, VA, 7-11 May 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CALIBRATION; INCIDENCE ANGLE; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; SENSITIVITY; X RADIATION; RADIATION EFFECTS; PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; RESPONSE FUNCTIONS

Citation Formats

Knauer, J.P., Marshall, F.J., Yaakobi, B., Anderson, D., Schmitt, B.A., Chandler, K.M., Pikuz, S.A., Shelkovenko, T.A., Mitchell, M.D., and Hammer, D.A.. Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Knauer, J.P., Marshall, F.J., Yaakobi, B., Anderson, D., Schmitt, B.A., Chandler, K.M., Pikuz, S.A., Shelkovenko, T.A., Mitchell, M.D., & Hammer, D.A.. Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays. United States.
Knauer, J.P., Marshall, F.J., Yaakobi, B., Anderson, D., Schmitt, B.A., Chandler, K.M., Pikuz, S.A., Shelkovenko, T.A., Mitchell, M.D., and Hammer, D.A.. Wed . "Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_897882,
title = {Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays},
author = {Knauer, J.P. and Marshall, F.J. and Yaakobi, B. and Anderson, D. and Schmitt, B.A. and Chandler, K.M. and Pikuz, S.A. and Shelkovenko, T.A. and Mitchell, M.D. and Hammer, D.A.},
abstractNote = {X-ray–sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. New film becomes available as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a “T-grain” class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF film. A model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, SEM micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to “T-grain” type film.},
doi = {},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = ,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 24 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Wed Jan 24 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • X-ray-sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. Replacement film must be found as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a 'T-grain' class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF and a model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, scanning electron microscopy micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check ofmore » the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain-type film.« less
  • The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this techniquemore » to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.« less
  • The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory e-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this techniquemore » to previously published calibrations.« less
  • A thinned backside illuminated CCD chip was calibrated by self consistently determining the thickness of its dead layer. Its spectral response and sensitivity were then compared with those of the calibrated Kodak 101 photographic plates and of a CsI coated microchannel plate detection system.
  • Kodak Direct Exposure film (DEF) has replaced Kodak No-Screen film for use in x-ray diffraction analysis and in autoradiography. DEF is a double-emulsion film which has been found to have improved radio-graphic characteristics over No-Screen. A set of H-D curves has been generated for DEF at five photon energies: 0.930, 1.49, 1.74, 4.51/4.93, and 6.93 keV. The KMSF x-ray calibration facility was utilized to study the absolute sensitivity of this film over its full dynamic range. Physical examination of the film was followed by theoretical modeling, which adequately reproduced the measured curves.