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Title: Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers

Abstract

The interaction of intense laser light with relativistic electrons can produce unique sources of high-energy x rays and gamma rays via Thomson scattering. ''Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray'' (T-REX) sources with peak photon brightness (photons per unit time per unit bandwidth per unit solid angle per unit area) that exceed that available from world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude are possible from optimally designed systems. Such sources offer the potential for development of ''nuclear photo-science'' applications in which the primary photon-atom interaction is with the nucleons and not the valence electrons. Applications include isotope-specific detection and imaging of materials, inverse density radiography, transmutation of nuclear waste and fundamental studies of nuclear structure. Because Thomson scattering cross sections are small, < 1 barn, the output from a T-REX source is optimized when the laser spot size and the electron spot size are minimized and when the electron and laser pulse durations are similar and short compared to the transit time through the focal region. The principle limitation to increased x-ray or gamma-ray brightness is ability to focus the electron beam. The effects of space charge on electron beam focus decrease approximately linearly with electron beam energy. For this reason,more » T-REX brightness increases rapidly as a function of the electron beam energy. As illustrated in Figure 1, above 100 keV these sources are unique in their ability to produce bright, narrow-beam, tunable, narrow-band gamma rays. New, intense, short-pulse, laser technologies for advanced T-REX sources are currently being developed at LLNL. The construction of a {approx}1 MeV-class machine with this technology is underway and will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in variety of materials. Nuclear resonance fluorescent spectra are unique signatures of each isotope and provide an ideal mechanism for identification of nuclear materials. With TREX it is possible to use NRF to provide high spatial resolution (micron scale) images of the isotopic distribution of all materials in a given object. Because of the high energy of the photons, imaging through dense and/or thick objects is possible. This technology will have applicability in many arenas including the survey of cargo for the presence of clandestine nuclear materials. It is also possible to address the more general radiographic challenge of imaging low-density objects that are shielded or placed behind high density objects. In this case, it is the NRF cross section and not the electron density of the material that provides contrast. Extensions of T-REX technology will be dependent upon the evolution of short pulse laser technology to high average powers. Concepts for sources that would produce 10's of kWs of gamma-rays by utilizing MW-class average-power, diode-pumped, short pulse lasers and energy recovery LINAC technology have been developed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
896576
Report Number(s):
UCRL-PROC-222451
TRN: US0700796
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: International Conference on Ultrahigh Intensity Lasers, Cassis, France, Sep 25 - Sep 29, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 42 ENGINEERING; CROSS SECTIONS; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRON DENSITY; ENERGY RECOVERY; LASERS; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; NUCLEAR STRUCTURE; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RESONANCE FLUORESCENCE; SPACE CHARGE; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; THOMSON SCATTERING

Citation Formats

Barty, C J, Hartemann, F V, McNabb, D P, Messerly, M, Siders, C, Anderson, S, Barnes, P, Betts, S, Gibson, D, Hagmann, C, Hernandez, J, Johnson, M, Jovanovic, I, Norman, R, Pruet, J, Rosenswieg, J, Shverdin, M, and Tremaine, A. Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Barty, C J, Hartemann, F V, McNabb, D P, Messerly, M, Siders, C, Anderson, S, Barnes, P, Betts, S, Gibson, D, Hagmann, C, Hernandez, J, Johnson, M, Jovanovic, I, Norman, R, Pruet, J, Rosenswieg, J, Shverdin, M, & Tremaine, A. Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers. United States.
Barty, C J, Hartemann, F V, McNabb, D P, Messerly, M, Siders, C, Anderson, S, Barnes, P, Betts, S, Gibson, D, Hagmann, C, Hernandez, J, Johnson, M, Jovanovic, I, Norman, R, Pruet, J, Rosenswieg, J, Shverdin, M, and Tremaine, A. 2006. "Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/896576.
@article{osti_896576,
title = {Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers},
author = {Barty, C J and Hartemann, F V and McNabb, D P and Messerly, M and Siders, C and Anderson, S and Barnes, P and Betts, S and Gibson, D and Hagmann, C and Hernandez, J and Johnson, M and Jovanovic, I and Norman, R and Pruet, J and Rosenswieg, J and Shverdin, M and Tremaine, A},
abstractNote = {The interaction of intense laser light with relativistic electrons can produce unique sources of high-energy x rays and gamma rays via Thomson scattering. ''Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray'' (T-REX) sources with peak photon brightness (photons per unit time per unit bandwidth per unit solid angle per unit area) that exceed that available from world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude are possible from optimally designed systems. Such sources offer the potential for development of ''nuclear photo-science'' applications in which the primary photon-atom interaction is with the nucleons and not the valence electrons. Applications include isotope-specific detection and imaging of materials, inverse density radiography, transmutation of nuclear waste and fundamental studies of nuclear structure. Because Thomson scattering cross sections are small, < 1 barn, the output from a T-REX source is optimized when the laser spot size and the electron spot size are minimized and when the electron and laser pulse durations are similar and short compared to the transit time through the focal region. The principle limitation to increased x-ray or gamma-ray brightness is ability to focus the electron beam. The effects of space charge on electron beam focus decrease approximately linearly with electron beam energy. For this reason, T-REX brightness increases rapidly as a function of the electron beam energy. As illustrated in Figure 1, above 100 keV these sources are unique in their ability to produce bright, narrow-beam, tunable, narrow-band gamma rays. New, intense, short-pulse, laser technologies for advanced T-REX sources are currently being developed at LLNL. The construction of a {approx}1 MeV-class machine with this technology is underway and will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in variety of materials. Nuclear resonance fluorescent spectra are unique signatures of each isotope and provide an ideal mechanism for identification of nuclear materials. With TREX it is possible to use NRF to provide high spatial resolution (micron scale) images of the isotopic distribution of all materials in a given object. Because of the high energy of the photons, imaging through dense and/or thick objects is possible. This technology will have applicability in many arenas including the survey of cargo for the presence of clandestine nuclear materials. It is also possible to address the more general radiographic challenge of imaging low-density objects that are shielded or placed behind high density objects. In this case, it is the NRF cross section and not the electron density of the material that provides contrast. Extensions of T-REX technology will be dependent upon the evolution of short pulse laser technology to high average powers. Concepts for sources that would produce 10's of kWs of gamma-rays by utilizing MW-class average-power, diode-pumped, short pulse lasers and energy recovery LINAC technology have been developed.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/896576}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {6}
}

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