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Title: Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments


No abstract prepared.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
TRN: US200711%%173
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments, Indianapolis, IN, United States, May 05 - May 09, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Fergenson, D P, and Farquar, G R. Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Fergenson, D P, & Farquar, G R. Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments. United States.
Fergenson, D P, and Farquar, G R. Fri . "Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments". United States. doi:.
title = {Instantaneous Detection of Particles Liberated by Open Detonation Treatments},
author = {Fergenson, D P and Farquar, G R},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Fri Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2006}

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  • The United States Army created their first Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams in 1941, primarily to deal with the possibility of unexploded ordnance in occupied areas. Training with the British, who had developed a strong EOD program in response to the air raids on their cities and military installations, the Army teams concentrated on the safety of the technician and the local population. The gradual advent of Environmental laws since the 1970s was largely unnoticed by the EOD community, whose operatives continued to value safety over environmental considerations. Now, the Army is faced with sites throughout the country that weremore » used as EOD areas or impact areas that need to be investigated and decontaminated before installations are turned over for public use. Records of the OB/OD activities conducted on these ranges are often sketchy or nonexistent, since the personnel performing the work were not required to keep detailed records. To develop the site investigation or initiate closure plans needed to clean these areas, it is necessary to know how EOD operations historically have been conducted. The specific methods which have been used by EOD technicians for the past 50 years vary by the types of explosives available and the types of munitions to be disposed of. The residues left by the operation would therefore vary, which would change the methods by which a site investigation should be conducted.« less
  • Treatment and disposal of explosives and munitions items have represented a significant management challenge for Department of Defense (DOD) facilities, particularly in light of increased regulatory scrutiny under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Subpart X of the RCRA regulations for storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes was drafted specifically to address explosive wastes. Until just recently, any DOD facility that was performing open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of explosives was doing so under interim status for RCRA Part B Subpart X. In August 1996, Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida becamemore » the first Air Force facility to be issued a final Part B Subpart X permit to perform OB/OD operations at two Eglin AFB active test ranges. This presentation will examine how Eglin AFB worked proactively with the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and EPA Region IV to develop permit conditions based upon risk assessment considerations for both air and ground-water exposure pathways. It will review the role of air emissions and air dispersion modeling in assessing potential exposure and impacts to both onsite and offsite receptors, and will discuss how air monitoring will be used to assure that the facility remains in compliance during OB/OD activities. The presentation will also discuss the soil and ground-water characterization program and associated risk assessment provisions for quarterly ground-water monitoring to assure permit compliance. The project is an excellent example of how a collaborative working relationship among the permittee, their consultant and state, and EPA can result in an environmentally protective permit that assures operational flexibility and mission sensitivity.« less
  • Manufacturers and users of energetic material (e.g., propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics (PEP)) generate unserviceable, obsolete, off-specification, damaged, and contaminated items that are characterized as reactive wastes by definition, and therefore regulated under RCRA, Subtitle C, as hazardous waste. Energetic wastes, to include waste ordnance and munitions items, have historically been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD), particularly by the Department of Defense (DoD). However, increasing regulatory constraints have led to the recent reduction and limited use of OB/OD treatment. DoD maintains that OB/OD is the most viable treatment option for its energetic waste streams, and has spurred research and developmentmore » activities to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD. DoD has funded extensive testing to identify and quantify contaminant releases from OB/OD of various PEP materials. These data are actively being used in risk assessment studies to evaluate the impact of OB/OD on human health and the environment. Additionally, in an effort to satisfy regulatory concerns, DoD has been forced to reevaluate its current PEP disposal operations as they relate to the environment. As a result, numerous pollution prevention initiatives have been identified and initiated, and life cycle analyses of treatment options have been conducted. Many of the DoD initiatives can be applied to the commercial explosives industry as well. Implementation of proactive and innovative pollution prevention strategies and the application of sound technical data to evaluate risk will serve to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD amongst the regulatory community and the public and can result in significant cost savings as well.« less
  • Manufacturers and users of energetic material [i.e., propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics (PEP)] generate unserviceable, obsolete, off-specification, and damaged items that are characterized as reactive waste. These items must be safely treated and disposed of or reclaimed/recycled, thereby controlling existing waste inventories at manageable levels. The most commonly used disposal and treatment method, particularly at US Department of Defense (DoD) installations, is open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). However, regulatory constraints and the inability of operators to obtain permits required for treating these waste has led to the recent reductions and limited use of OB/OD treatment at many installations. The discussion herein includes humanmore » health and environmental protection concerns that must be addressed in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subpart X permit applications. Determining the potential impacts of OB/OD on these areas of concern was performed using data obtained from the Dugway Proving Grounds Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic Thermal Treatment Evaluation and Test Facility, commonly referred to as the BangBox. Specifically, data from the testing of munition items in the BangBox facility were used to support waste characterization, air modeling, and risk assessments required to resolve notice of deficiencies and prepare permit applications for OB/OD facilities at US Air Force (USAF) installations.« less