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Title: TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

Abstract

The capture of solar energy and its conversion into chemical energy in photosynthetic organisms involves a series of charge reactions across photosynthetic membranes. Oxygen is generated by a proton-electron coupling in photosystem II (PSII) during a water oxidation process where hydrogen is extracted from water terminally bound to a Mn4Ca1Clx inorganic cluster [1]. Manganese is, therefore, an essential catalytic element for photosynthetic growth in cyanobacteria and plants. Since bioavailability of this micronutrient largely depends on the Mn concentration in natural environments, cells have to manage its uptake in order to endure Mn fluctuations. Previous studies have shown that metal biosorption in cyanobacteria can occur by passive adsorption to their outer membrane (pool A), and by metabolically mediated internal uptake [2]. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 has been widely used as a model organism for studying photosynthetic processes. This Gram-negative organism has an intricate architecture of internal thylakoid membranes where photosynthetic electron transfer takes place. Here we report on the spatial distribution of Mn biosorbed by cells in both external pool A and intracellular pool B, as observed and analyzed by methods of TEM. The Synechocystis 6803 cells were cultured in BG11 medium at 30 C with continuous irradiance andmore » constant air bubbling. To determine the influence of solid or liquid Mn substrate and its oxidation state on the cell biosorption ability, cells were exposed to two Mn substrates: 1mM solution of MnCl2, and 0.5mM suspension of nanocrystalline MnO2. Cells were incubated with the respective Mn solutions for 48 hours, harvested, and processed using a modified protocol for plastic embedding of bacterial samples containing minerals that was developed in our laboratory [3]. In order to preserve the fragile redox conditions within the cells, all the common heavy metal-based fixatives and stains were omitted, resulting in cells with very low contrast produced principally by electron-dense manganese precipitates. Thin sections were imaged and analyzed using JEOL 2010 HRTEM coupled with EDS (Oxford) and EELS (Gatan) systems. Manganese uptake was measured using a colorimetric method. Cells incubated with Mn solutions were able to take up about 150uM of Mn(II) or Mn(IV) in 48 hours. The predominant accumulation of Mn was associated with the outer membrane for both Mn substrates. Massive deposits seemed to be related in a large extent to the external polymeric substances (EPS) as shown in Fig. 1A-C. Elemental analyses of these precipitates revealed a signal consistent with manganese phosphate. The potential of EPS such as polysaccharides for biosorption or reduction of metals has been described [4], however, the fact that Mn bound to the EPS withstood multiple washes during TEM sample processing is remarkable. From our work with Gram-negative soil bacteria, we hypothesized that the periplasm, an area between the outer and plasma membrane, might be the storage space for internal Mn in pool B. This phenomenon was not observed at any time point for either culture exposed to the Mn. Instead, thin layers of Mn deposits were often found lining the outer and plasma membrane (F). In the MnCl2 solution only, we also observed fine deposits of Mn precipitates along the thylakoid membranes deep inside the cells (Fig. E). Localization of Mn precipitation sites in Synechocystis has important implications for better understanding of the Mn transport and storage processes within cyanobacterial cells, as well as of metal precipitation, solubilization and cycling in the environment.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
894865
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-48742
16315; TRN: US200702%%441
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Microscopy and Microanalysis 2006, Chicago, Illinois, USA, July 30 – August 3, 2005. Published in Microscopy and Microanalysis, 12(Supplement S02):444-445
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; BACTERIA; CYANOBACTERIA; ELECTRON TRANSFER; FRESH WATER; LINERS; MANGANESE; MANGANESE PHOSPHATES; MICROSCOPY; OXIDATION; PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANES; POLYSACCHARIDES; SOLAR ENERGY; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; VALENCE; cyanobacteria; biosorption; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Dohnalkova, Alice, Bilskis, Christina L, and Kennedy, David W. TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1017/S1431927606064051.
Dohnalkova, Alice, Bilskis, Christina L, & Kennedy, David W. TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. United States. doi:10.1017/S1431927606064051.
Dohnalkova, Alice, Bilskis, Christina L, and Kennedy, David W. Fri . "TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803". United States. doi:10.1017/S1431927606064051.
@article{osti_894865,
title = {TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803},
author = {Dohnalkova, Alice and Bilskis, Christina L and Kennedy, David W},
abstractNote = {The capture of solar energy and its conversion into chemical energy in photosynthetic organisms involves a series of charge reactions across photosynthetic membranes. Oxygen is generated by a proton-electron coupling in photosystem II (PSII) during a water oxidation process where hydrogen is extracted from water terminally bound to a Mn4Ca1Clx inorganic cluster [1]. Manganese is, therefore, an essential catalytic element for photosynthetic growth in cyanobacteria and plants. Since bioavailability of this micronutrient largely depends on the Mn concentration in natural environments, cells have to manage its uptake in order to endure Mn fluctuations. Previous studies have shown that metal biosorption in cyanobacteria can occur by passive adsorption to their outer membrane (pool A), and by metabolically mediated internal uptake [2]. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 has been widely used as a model organism for studying photosynthetic processes. This Gram-negative organism has an intricate architecture of internal thylakoid membranes where photosynthetic electron transfer takes place. Here we report on the spatial distribution of Mn biosorbed by cells in both external pool A and intracellular pool B, as observed and analyzed by methods of TEM. The Synechocystis 6803 cells were cultured in BG11 medium at 30 C with continuous irradiance and constant air bubbling. To determine the influence of solid or liquid Mn substrate and its oxidation state on the cell biosorption ability, cells were exposed to two Mn substrates: 1mM solution of MnCl2, and 0.5mM suspension of nanocrystalline MnO2. Cells were incubated with the respective Mn solutions for 48 hours, harvested, and processed using a modified protocol for plastic embedding of bacterial samples containing minerals that was developed in our laboratory [3]. In order to preserve the fragile redox conditions within the cells, all the common heavy metal-based fixatives and stains were omitted, resulting in cells with very low contrast produced principally by electron-dense manganese precipitates. Thin sections were imaged and analyzed using JEOL 2010 HRTEM coupled with EDS (Oxford) and EELS (Gatan) systems. Manganese uptake was measured using a colorimetric method. Cells incubated with Mn solutions were able to take up about 150uM of Mn(II) or Mn(IV) in 48 hours. The predominant accumulation of Mn was associated with the outer membrane for both Mn substrates. Massive deposits seemed to be related in a large extent to the external polymeric substances (EPS) as shown in Fig. 1A-C. Elemental analyses of these precipitates revealed a signal consistent with manganese phosphate. The potential of EPS such as polysaccharides for biosorption or reduction of metals has been described [4], however, the fact that Mn bound to the EPS withstood multiple washes during TEM sample processing is remarkable. From our work with Gram-negative soil bacteria, we hypothesized that the periplasm, an area between the outer and plasma membrane, might be the storage space for internal Mn in pool B. This phenomenon was not observed at any time point for either culture exposed to the Mn. Instead, thin layers of Mn deposits were often found lining the outer and plasma membrane (F). In the MnCl2 solution only, we also observed fine deposits of Mn precipitates along the thylakoid membranes deep inside the cells (Fig. E). Localization of Mn precipitation sites in Synechocystis has important implications for better understanding of the Mn transport and storage processes within cyanobacterial cells, as well as of metal precipitation, solubilization and cycling in the environment.},
doi = {10.1017/S1431927606064051},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {9}
}

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