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Title: Comparison of cleanup criteria for sites contaminated with NORM

Abstract

Criteria for the cleanup of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contaminated sites have been developed by many states. In addition, site-specific criteria have been used for many specific remediation projects. While most of the state regulations generally follow the generic regulation developed by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), there are notable differences. These differences can cause significant variation in calculated doses from a standard set of exposure scenarios. For example, the CRCPD and many state NORM regulations include the residual soil radium limits contained in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) regulation for uranium and thorium processing activities. This criterion limits soil radium concentrations to 5 pCi/g in the top 15 cm and 15 pCi/g averaged over each subsequent 15-cm depth for unrestricted site use. However, some states allow a radium concentration of 30 pCi/g if the surface radon flux is <20 pCi/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Even with these restrictions, future reclaimers of the land could be exposed to radon concentrations far in excess of EPA`s guidelines and gamma doses exceeding established limits. The technical basis for allowing a radium limit of 30 pCi/g in soils, if the surface radon flux is <20 pCi/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, is basedmore » on previous EPA UMTRAP and Clean Air Act regulations that do not consider future unrestricted use of the site, This example highlights the importance of defining conditions that are consistent with specific numerical criteria and the importance of considering the assumptions used in technical work that supports the criteria.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
89415
Report Number(s):
CONF-941102-
Journal ID: TANSAO; ISSN 0003-018X; TRN: 95:004215-0492
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Transactions of the American Nuclear Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 71; Conference: Winter meeting of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), Washington, DC (United States), 13-18 Nov 1994; Other Information: PBD: 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; REMEDIAL ACTION; CONTAMINATION; SPECIFICATIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIUM; THORIUM; RADIOACTIVITY; STATE GOVERNMENT

Citation Formats

Rogers, V, Bernhardt, D E, and Sandquist, G M. Comparison of cleanup criteria for sites contaminated with NORM. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Rogers, V, Bernhardt, D E, & Sandquist, G M. Comparison of cleanup criteria for sites contaminated with NORM. United States.
Rogers, V, Bernhardt, D E, and Sandquist, G M. Sat . "Comparison of cleanup criteria for sites contaminated with NORM". United States.
@article{osti_89415,
title = {Comparison of cleanup criteria for sites contaminated with NORM},
author = {Rogers, V and Bernhardt, D E and Sandquist, G M},
abstractNote = {Criteria for the cleanup of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contaminated sites have been developed by many states. In addition, site-specific criteria have been used for many specific remediation projects. While most of the state regulations generally follow the generic regulation developed by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), there are notable differences. These differences can cause significant variation in calculated doses from a standard set of exposure scenarios. For example, the CRCPD and many state NORM regulations include the residual soil radium limits contained in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) regulation for uranium and thorium processing activities. This criterion limits soil radium concentrations to 5 pCi/g in the top 15 cm and 15 pCi/g averaged over each subsequent 15-cm depth for unrestricted site use. However, some states allow a radium concentration of 30 pCi/g if the surface radon flux is <20 pCi/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Even with these restrictions, future reclaimers of the land could be exposed to radon concentrations far in excess of EPA`s guidelines and gamma doses exceeding established limits. The technical basis for allowing a radium limit of 30 pCi/g in soils, if the surface radon flux is <20 pCi/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, is based on previous EPA UMTRAP and Clean Air Act regulations that do not consider future unrestricted use of the site, This example highlights the importance of defining conditions that are consistent with specific numerical criteria and the importance of considering the assumptions used in technical work that supports the criteria.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/89415}, journal = {Transactions of the American Nuclear Society},
number = ,
volume = 71,
place = {United States},
year = {1994},
month = {12}
}