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Title: AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

Abstract

The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightlymore » controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
AgraPure, Inc, Mendenhall,MS
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
893292
Report Number(s):
DOE/GO/13051-1
TRN: US200719%%850
DOE Contract Number:
FG36-03GO13051
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; BIOFUELS; BIOMASS; COMMERCIALIZATION; DIESEL ENGINES; ELECTRICITY; ENERGY SOURCES; ETHANOL; FINANCIAL INCENTIVES; LIQUID FUELS; RAW MATERIALS; Renewable energy; biofuel; biodiesel; agricultural byproducts and waste products; Mississippi; steam and electrical generating; thermochemical conversion/generation; FG36-03GO13051; AgraPure; biomass; poultry waste; animal waste; electricity generation; biomass feedstock

Citation Formats

Blackwell,D.A, Broadhead, L.W., and Harrell, W.J.. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/893292.
Blackwell,D.A, Broadhead, L.W., & Harrell, W.J.. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project. United States. doi:10.2172/893292.
Blackwell,D.A, Broadhead, L.W., and Harrell, W.J.. Fri . "AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project". United States. doi:10.2172/893292. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/893292.
@article{osti_893292,
title = {AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project},
author = {Blackwell,D.A and Broadhead, L.W. and Harrell, W.J.},
abstractNote = {The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.},
doi = {10.2172/893292},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Mar 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals.more » These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic conversion. All three of these processes are of particular interest to states in the Southeastern US since the agricultural products produced in this region are highly variable in terms of actual crop, production quantity, and the ability of land areas to support a particular type of crop. This greatly differs from the Midwestern US where most of this region's agricultural land supports one to two primary crops, such as corn and soybean. Therefore, developing processes which are relatively flexible in terms of biomass feedstock is key to the southeastern region of the US if this area is going to be a 'player' in the developing biomass to chemicals arena. With regard to the fermentation of syngas, research was directed toward developing improved biocatalysts through organism discovery and optimization, improving ethanol/acetic acid separations, evaluating potential bacterial contaminants, and assessing the use of innovative fermentors that are better suited for supporting syngas fermentation. Acid hydrolysis research was directed toward improved conversion yields and rates, acid recovery using membranes, optimization of fermenting organisms, and hydrolyzate characterization with changing feedstocks. Additionally, a series of development efforts addressed novel separation techniques for the separation of key chemicals from fermentation activities. Biogas related research focused on key factors hindering the widespread use of digester technologies in non-traditional industries. The digestion of acetic acids and other fermentation wastewaters was studied and methods used to optimize the process were undertaken. Additionally, novel laboratory methods were designed along with improved methods of digester operation. A search for better performing digester consortia was initiated coupled with improved methods to initiate their activity within digester environments. The third activity of the consortium generally studied the production of 'other' chemicals from waste biomass materials found in Mississippi. The two primary examples of this activity are production of chemical feedstocks from lignin and the production of high valued lipids from wastewater treatment sludges. Lignin conversion research, done in collaboration with DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), studied ligninases derived from bacteria found within the gut of wood degrading insects, such as termites and the Betsey beetle. This research attempted to use these enzymes to reduce lignin down to aromatic chemicals capable of chemical conversation for production of value-added chemicals. The biodiesel efforts attempted to development economically viable methods for the separation of lipids from wastewater bacteria (which make up the bulk of sewage sludge) which were then converted to biodisel.« less
  • The current and potential future contribution of biomass energy to the energy consumption of Mississippi was estimated through a county-level inventory. In 1989, 91 industrial or commercial facilities were found to burn wood, municipal solid waste, or rice hulls for energy, with an estimated energy contribution of 58.7 trillion Btu. Other commercial biomass industries found to make contributions to Mississippi's economy were residential wood and ethanol fuels. In total, biomass energy is estimated to represent more than seven percent of Mississippi's total energy consumption, an amount that is twice the national average. Substantial future energy resources for the state couldmore » come from unused mill residues, potential annual forest energy wood, crop residues, livestock and poultry wastes, and municipal wastes. Biomass could reasonably supply from 20 to 30 percent of the energy needs of Mississippi. 40 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.« less
  • This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing on a county by county basis the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of Mississippi that are potential biomass energy sources.
  • This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing on a county by county basis the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of Mississippi that are potential biomass energy sources.
  • This volume describes the product analysis and upgrading efforts undertaken in this cooperative project and the results of those efforts. The analytical program involved analysis of biomass liquefaction products recovered from the Comparative Test portion of the Cooperative Project as well as a number of other similar products which were analyzed for comparison. A few of these products were further tested for the potential of upgrading the raw products to higher-valued products such as transportation fuels or chemicals. As a result of these efforts, the many differences as well as similarities among the various products have been quantified. The productsmore » basically fall into one of the two categories---pyrolysis products having high oxygen and dissolved water contents with low viscosities and heating values or high pressure liquefaction products which have lower oxygen and dissolved water contents, but higher viscosities and heating values. More importantly, the differences appear to result from the difference in severity of biomass processing as a result of time at temperature and pressure. The effects of feedstock are substantial only when considering the difference between wood and peat. The peat products contain less oxygen but more sulfur and nitrogen while having significant amounts of actual hydrocarbon. Differences in products produced from various species of soft and hard wood were nearly insignificant compared to the differences between wood and peat products. 25 refs., 7 figs., 16 tabs.« less