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Title: Sol-Gel SiO2-Polymer Hybrid Heteropoly Acid-Based Proton Exchange Membranes


No abstract prepared.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
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Resource Relation:
Conference: Hydrogen Cycle -- Generation, Storage and Fuel Cells: Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Symposium A, 28 November - 2 December 2005, Boston, Massachusetts; Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 885; Related Information: Paper No. 0885-A01-10
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Fern, F. J., Turner, J. A., Meng, F., and Herring, A. M. Sol-Gel SiO2-Polymer Hybrid Heteropoly Acid-Based Proton Exchange Membranes. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Fern, F. J., Turner, J. A., Meng, F., & Herring, A. M. Sol-Gel SiO2-Polymer Hybrid Heteropoly Acid-Based Proton Exchange Membranes. United States.
Fern, F. J., Turner, J. A., Meng, F., and Herring, A. M. Sun . "Sol-Gel SiO2-Polymer Hybrid Heteropoly Acid-Based Proton Exchange Membranes". United States. doi:.
title = {Sol-Gel SiO2-Polymer Hybrid Heteropoly Acid-Based Proton Exchange Membranes},
author = {Fern, F. J. and Turner, J. A. and Meng, F. and Herring, A. M.},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}

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  • No abstract prepared.
  • Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs)more » into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.« less
  • Proton exchange membrane (PEM) research has been directed at phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes since the 1990s. PEM fuel cells based on PA-doped PBI membranes produced via a sol-gel transition process have achieved lifetimes >10,000hrs with low degradation rates. It has been suggested that the gel morphology of the PA-doped PBI membranes is responsible for their excellent electrochemical performance. Thus, a study has been underway to characterize the microstructure of PA-doped PBI membranes, and to correlate structure with performance. However, PA-doped PBI membranes present special challenges for microscopy analysis, as these membranes are extremely sensitive to the electron beammore » and high vacuum conditions. This paper will discuss and compare the mechanical, electrochemical, and cryo-SEM analyses of PA-doped meta-PBI membranes produced via conventional imbibing and the sol-gel process.« less
  • Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3})/polymer nano-composite was successfully synthesized by methacryltriisopropoxytitanium (MTPT), barium alkoxide and styrene. BaTiO{sub 3} particles/polymer hybrid material was formed after the polymerization and hydrolysis of the complex alkoxide. Crystalline BaTiO{sub 3} particles of around 3 nm in size were dispersed through in-situ formation in the polymer matrix. The BaTiO{sub 3}/styrene hybrid films were synthesized from Ba-Ti complex alkoxide and styrene. The dielectric properties of the hybrid films were measured.
  • Nanoporous sol-gel based films are finding a wide variety of uses including gas separations and supports for heterogeneous catalysts. The films can be formed by spin or dip coating, followed by relatively low temperature annealing. The authors used several types of these films as coatings on the Pd alloy thin film sensors they had previously fabricated and studied. The sol-gel films have little effect on the sensing response to H{sub 2} alone. However, in the presence of other gases, the nanoporous film modifies the sensor behavior in several beneficial ways. (1) They have shown that the sol-gel coated sensors weremore » only slightly poisoned by high concentrations of H{sub 2}S while uncoated sensors showed moderate to severe poisoning effects. (2) For a given partial pressure of H{sub 2}, the signal from the sensor is modified by the presence of O{sub 2} and other oxidizing gases.« less