skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Design Considerations for Passive Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

Abstract

Passive gamma-ray spectrometers composed of attenuation filters and integrating detection materials provide important advantages for measurements in high-radiation environments and for long-term monitoring. Each of these applications has requirements that constrain the design of the instrument, such as incident energy range of interest, sensor size and weight, readout method and cost. In addition, the multitude of variable parameters in passive spectrometer design (e.g. attenuation filter material and thickness, integrating sensor type, numbers of pixels, reconstructed energy bin structure) results in a large design space to analyze. The development of generalized design optimization tools to interrogate this space and identify promising spectrometer designs are discussed, particularly the methods used to rapidly calculate system transfer functions and the search for suitable design evaluation metrics. Finally, specific examples of candidate spectrometer designs are provided, and preliminary measurements to validate the design tools are described.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
891752
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-41793
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record 16-22 October 2004 Rome, Italy., 3(1571-1575
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
nuclear measurements; monitoring techniques

Citation Formats

Smith, Leon E., Swickard, Andrea R., Heredia-Langner, Alejandro, Warren, Glen A., Siciliano, Edward R., and Miller, Steven D. Design Considerations for Passive Gamma-Ray Spectrometers. United States: N. p., 2005. Web.
Smith, Leon E., Swickard, Andrea R., Heredia-Langner, Alejandro, Warren, Glen A., Siciliano, Edward R., & Miller, Steven D. Design Considerations for Passive Gamma-Ray Spectrometers. United States.
Smith, Leon E., Swickard, Andrea R., Heredia-Langner, Alejandro, Warren, Glen A., Siciliano, Edward R., and Miller, Steven D. 2005. "Design Considerations for Passive Gamma-Ray Spectrometers". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_891752,
title = {Design Considerations for Passive Gamma-Ray Spectrometers},
author = {Smith, Leon E. and Swickard, Andrea R. and Heredia-Langner, Alejandro and Warren, Glen A. and Siciliano, Edward R. and Miller, Steven D.},
abstractNote = {Passive gamma-ray spectrometers composed of attenuation filters and integrating detection materials provide important advantages for measurements in high-radiation environments and for long-term monitoring. Each of these applications has requirements that constrain the design of the instrument, such as incident energy range of interest, sensor size and weight, readout method and cost. In addition, the multitude of variable parameters in passive spectrometer design (e.g. attenuation filter material and thickness, integrating sensor type, numbers of pixels, reconstructed energy bin structure) results in a large design space to analyze. The development of generalized design optimization tools to interrogate this space and identify promising spectrometer designs are discussed, particularly the methods used to rapidly calculate system transfer functions and the search for suitable design evaluation metrics. Finally, specific examples of candidate spectrometer designs are provided, and preliminary measurements to validate the design tools are described.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2005,
month =
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • Passive gamma-ray spectrometers composed of attenuation filters and integrating detection materials provide important advantages for measurements in high-radiation environments and for long-term monitoring. Each of these applications has requirements that constrain the design of the instrument, such as incident energy range of interest, sensor size and weight, readout method, and cost. In addition, the multitude of variable parameters in passive spectrometer design (e.g. attenuation filter material and thickness, integrating sensor type, numbers of pixels, reconstructed energy bin structure) results in a large design space to analyze. The development of generalized design optimization tools to interrogate this space and identify promisingmore » spectrometer designs are discussed, particularly the methods used to rapidly calculate system transfer functions and the use of genetic algorithms for design optimization. Finally, preliminary measurements to validate the design tools are described, and specific examples of preliminary design optimization efforts are provided.« less
  • Passive gamma-ray spectrometers composed of attenuation filters and integrating detection materials provide important advantages for measurements in high-radiation environments and for long-term monitoring. Each of these applications has requirements that constrain the design of the instrument, such as incident energy range of interest, sensor size and weight, readout method, and cost. The multitude of parameters in passive spectrometer design (e.g. attenuation filter material and thickness, integrating sensor type, numbers of pixels, reconstructed energy bin structure) results in a large design space to examine. The development of generalized design optimization tools to interrogate this space and to identify promising spectrometer designsmore » is discussed, particularly the methods used to rapidly calculate system transfer functions and the use of genetic algorithms for design optimization. Preliminary measurements to validate the design tools are described, and example results from early design optimization efforts are provided.« less
  • Passive gamma-ray spectrometers composed of attenuation filters and integrating detector materials provide important advantages in terms of zero-power operation and ruggedness for long-term monitoring scenarios (e.g. national security or environmental remediation). However, the many design parameters, including attenuation filter material and thickness and number of pixels (filter/integrating material combinations), present a challenging optimization problem in designing spectrometers for different applications. In many of these applications, the goal is simply one of anomaly detection?deciding that there is a gamma-ray source not normally found in the nuisance source populations of that particular measurement environment. A passive spectrometer design study approach using anmore » anomaly detection metric is presented here, and is founded on ''injecting'' target sources of interest (e.g. 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs) into a nuisance source population that represents the widely varying backgrounds typical of long-term monitoring scenarios. The design evaluation metric is quantified by the probability of detection given a required probability of false alarm. A genetic algorithm employs this metric to probe the large design space and identify superior spectrometer designs. Mapping the false alarm and detection probabilities against each other for each design produces receiver-operator characteristic curves that can be used to compare many instrument designs over a wide range of operating constraints.« less
  • Recently there has been increasing utility and government interest in potential future nuclear units combining the characteristics of greater simplicity and passive safety features. In response to such interest, General Electric (GE) initiated studies of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with simplified power generation, safety, and heat removal systems. This paper describes the key features of GE's simplified BWR (SBWR), with particular focus on considerations related to the core and fuel design. These relate primarily to power density, core dimensions, fuel pitch, dynamic parameters, and operational strategies. Despite the differences, however, compatibility with the existing standard BWR fuel product linemore » has been maintained. The SBWR is anticipated to share the benefits from continuing evolution and improvement of this product line.« less
  • Many potentially practical applications for nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures are difficult or impossible to perform because of the physical size of existing mobile gama cameras. With the commercial availability of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes the development of an instrument ideally suited to these applications now appears to be practical. The authors have tested the major components necessary to construct such a camera and have proposed a circuit configuration designed to provide a high level of clinical performance in such a device. Spatial resolution and linearity data from a developmental prototype are provided.