skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

Abstract

Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser-driven inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stress, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed to a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to assess the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
890609
Report Number(s):
UCRL-TH-217754
TRN: US200620%%750
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ION IMPLANTATION; LASERS; MELTING; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; OPTICS; POWER PLANTS; VIABILITY

Citation Formats

Abbott, Ryan P. Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/890609.
Abbott, Ryan P. Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants. United States. doi:10.2172/890609.
Abbott, Ryan P. Thu . "Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants". United States. doi:10.2172/890609. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/890609.
@article{osti_890609,
title = {Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants},
author = {Abbott, Ryan P.},
abstractNote = {Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser-driven inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stress, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed to a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to assess the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.},
doi = {10.2172/890609},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this thesis or dissertation.

Save / Share:
  • Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stresses, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed into a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to asses the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.
  • Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on amore » given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.« less
  • Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to bemore » effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors.« less
  • Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain themore » fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and pulse lengths and a relationship between conversion efficiency and laser intensity was deduced. This work serves to advance knowledge of laser-plasma interactions relevant to a variety of laser-driven fusion schemes, and indicates directions for future research. These results should facilitate the success of NIF and other laser-fusion facilities.« less
  • A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) target’s flight through a low Reynolds number and high Mach number regime was analyzed with computational fluid dynamics software. This regime consisted of xenon gas at 1,050 K and approximately 6,670 Pa. Simulations with similar flow conditions were performed with a sphere and compared with experimental data and published correlations for validation purposes. Transient considerations of the developing flow around the target were explored. Simulations of the target at different velocities were used to determine correlations for the drag coefficient and Nusselt number as functions of the Reynolds number. Simulations with different angles ofmore » attack were used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of drag, lift, Magnus moment, and overturning moment as well as target stability. The drag force, lift force, and overturning moment changed minimally with spin. Above an angle of attack of 15°, the overturning moment would be destabilizing. At low angles of attack (less than 15°), the overturning moment would tend to decrease the target’s angle of attack, indicating the lack of a need for spin for stability at small angles. This stabilizing moment would cause the target to move in a mildly damped oscillation about the axis parallel to the free-stream velocity vector through the target’s center of gravity.« less