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Title: Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

Abstract

A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SRS
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
890214
Report Number(s):
WSRC-TR-2006-00112
TRN: US200620%%713
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC09-96SR18500
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; AIR; DEFECTS; DILUTION; FLAMMABILITY; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN PRODUCTION; MANAGEMENT; MIXTURES; OPENINGS; STORAGE; TESTING; VENTILATION

Citation Formats

Rawls, G. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/890214.
Rawls, G. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems. United States. doi:10.2172/890214.
Rawls, G. Thu . "Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems". United States. doi:10.2172/890214. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/890214.
@article{osti_890214,
title = {Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems},
author = {Rawls, G},
abstractNote = {A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.},
doi = {10.2172/890214},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Thu Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexitiesmore » of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.« less
  • The work presented in this report summarizes the current state-of-the-art in on-board storage on compressed gaseous hydrogen as well as the development of analysis tools, methods, and theoretical data for devising high performance design configurations for hydrogen storage. The state-of-the-art in the area of compressed hydrogen storage reveals that the current configuration of the hydrogen storage tank is a seamless cylindrical part with two end domes. The tank is composed of an aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers. Such a configuration was proved to sustain internal pressures up to 350 bars (5,000 psi). Finite-element stress analyses were performed on filament-woundmore » hydrogen storage cylindrical tanks under the effect of internal pressure of 700 bars (10,000 psi). Tank deformations, stress fields, and intensities induced at the tank wall were examined. The results indicated that the aluminum liner can not sustain such a high pressure and initiate the tank failure. Thus, hydrogen tanks ought to be built entirely out of composite materials based on carbon fibers or other innovative composite materials. A spherical hydrogen storage tank was suggested within the scope of this project. A stress reduction was achieved by this change of the tank geometry, which allows for increasing the amount of the stored hydrogen and storage energy density. The finite element modeling of both cylindrical and spherical tank design configurations indicate that the formation of stress concentration zones in the vicinity of the valve inlet as well as the presence of high shear stresses in this area. Therefore, it is highly recommended to tailor the tank wall design to be thicker in this region and tapered to the required thickness in the rest of the tank shell. Innovative layout configurations of multiple tanks for enhanced conformability in limited space have been proposed and theoretically modeled using 3D finite element analysis. Optimum tailoring of fiber orientations and lay-ups are needed to relieve the high stress in regions of high stress concentrations between intersecting tanks/ tank sections. Filament winding process is the most suitable way for producing both cylindrical and spherical hydrogen storage tanks with high industrial quality. However, due to the unavailability of such equipment at West Virginia University and limited funding, the composite structures within this work were produced by hand layup and bag molding techniques. More advanced manufacturing processes can significantly increase the structural strength of the tank and enhances its performance and also further increase weight saving capabilities. The concept of using a carbon composite liner seems to be promising in overcoming the low strength of the aluminum liner at internal high pressures. This could be further enhanced by using MetPreg filament winding to produce such a liner. Innovative designs for the polar boss of the storage tanks and the valve connections are still needed to reduce the high stress formed in these zones to allow for the tank to accommodate higher internal pressures. The Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) approach was applied for fault-tolerant design and efficient maintenance of lightweight automotive structures made of composite materials. Potential effects of damage initiation and accumulation are formulated for various design configurations, with emphasis on lightweight fiber-reinforced composites. The CDM model considers damage associated with plasticity and fatigue.« less
  • The “Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery” project [DE-FG36-08GO18062] was initiated on 01 July 2008. Hexagon Lincoln (then Lincoln Composites) received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy to support the design and development of an improved bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of cost, safety, weight and volumetric efficiency. The development of this capability required parallel development and qualification of large all-composites pressure vessels, a custom ISO container to transport and store said tanks, and performance of trade studies to identify optimal operating pressure for the system. Qualificationmore » of the 250 bar TITAN® module was completed in 2009 with supervision from the American Bureau of Shipping [ABS], and the equipment has been used internationally for bulk transportation of fuel gases since 2010. Phase 1 of the project was successfully completed in 2012 with the issuance of USDOT SP 14951, the special permit authorizing the manufacture, marking, sale and use of TITAN® Mobile Pipeline® equipment in the United States. The introduction of tube trailers with light weight composite tankage has meant that 2 to 3 times as much gaseous fuel can be transported with each trip. This increased hauling efficiency offers dramatically reduced operating costs and has enabled a profitable business model for over-the-road compressed natural gas delivery. The economic drivers of this business opportunity vary from country to country and region to region, but in many places gas distribution companies have realized profitable operations. Additional testing was performed in 2015 to characterize hydrogen-specific operating protocols for use of TITAN® systems in CHG service at 250 bar. This program demonstrated that existing compression and decompression methodologies can efficiently and safely fill and unload lightweight bulk hauling systems. Hexagon Lincoln and U.S. DOE agreed to continue into Phase 2 of the project without pursuing the development of higher pressure capabilities as originally planned. At 250 bar, development of equipment for hydrogen transport is supported by strong activity in the adjacent natural gas transportation sector. Trade studies performed since 2011 indicate optimization of hauling efficiency and system cost for hydrogen transport at about 350 bar (5076 psi). However, due to reduced efficiency of compression of natural gas above 250 bar, 350 bar operation is not an attractive option for natural gas transportation. The CHG market is not developed at this time, and it is difficult to forecast the arrival of significant revenues. On the investment side, the cost to fully qualify a large tank module at 350 bar is estimated at $3MM to $5MM. There is insufficient CHG market definition to support a stand-alone business case for this investment without near term revenue in the adjacent CNG transportation market. Therefore development of a 350 bar TITAN® system was deferred and not pursued under this project. Hexagon Lincoln continues to support the development of tankage and equipment for operation at 350 bar and above; with 700 bar vehicle tanks and 950 bar tanks for ground storage applications. Phase 2 activities were focused on reducing system cost, increasing system capacity, increasing system safety and characterization of polymer material performance specific to hydrogen pressure vessel usage. With the successful launch of TITAN® modules and trailers in natural gas transportation, over 600 units have been produced through the end of 2016, resulting in improved purchasing power for raw materials and manufactured components. This has allowed Hexagon Lincoln to approach the current project goals for system cost. At $590/kg of compressed hydrogen delivered, the system cost of the baseline TITAN® module is below the project’s 2015 target of $730/kg H2 delivered, and very close to the project’s 2020 target of $575/kg H2 delivered. [Based on product pricing in 1Q2017.] Emphasis was placed on configuration of larger capacity systems within the vehicle weights and dimensions allowed on federal and state highways in the United States and other countries. These activities resulted in the design and development of integrated tube trailer systems that have increased delivery capacities by 45%. The hydrogen delivery capacity of our largest system is 845 kg, exceeding the project’s 2015 target of 700 kg H2 delivered. Emerging technologies offering improvement of the safety systems used on the equipment were investigated, with particular focus on improving the reliability and cost of the emergency venting system for fire protection. Finally, investment in our materials laboratory improved detection and characterization of hydrogen-induced damage in polymer materials, supporting the development of operational protocols to avoid damage to pressure vessel liners and valve components.« less