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Title: A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility

Abstract

X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analysis of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma-rays, and x-rays from laser-plasma interactions.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
889438
Report Number(s):
UCRL-CONF-221181
TRN: US0604423
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, Williamsburg, VA, United States, May 07 - May 11, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 42 ENGINEERING; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; CRYOGENICS; IGNITION; IMPLOSIONS; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; NEUTRONS; PERFORMANCE; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; SHAPE; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; US NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

Citation Formats

Tommasini, R, Koch, J A, Young, B, Ng, E, Phillips, T, and Dauffy, L. A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Tommasini, R, Koch, J A, Young, B, Ng, E, Phillips, T, & Dauffy, L. A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility. United States.
Tommasini, R, Koch, J A, Young, B, Ng, E, Phillips, T, and Dauffy, L. Wed . "A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/889438.
@article{osti_889438,
title = {A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility},
author = {Tommasini, R and Koch, J A and Young, B and Ng, E and Phillips, T and Dauffy, L},
abstractNote = {X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analysis of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma-rays, and x-rays from laser-plasma interactions.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 03 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Wed May 03 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analyses of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background, and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma rays, andmore » x rays from laser-plasma interactions.« less
  • X-ray imaging will be an important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, high neutron yields will make x-ray imaging much more difficult than it is at smaller facilities. We analyze the feasibility and performance of a High-Energy X-Ray Imager (HEXRI) to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at NIF, with particular emphasis on spatial-resolution, field of view, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios. Using a pinhole about 4 {micro}m in diameter a resolution of 5.8 {micro}m is achieved at 9 keV, limited by restrictions in the pinhole positioning. The resolution varies between 8.5more » and 4.5 {micro}m in the 5-20 keV spectral range. Different options for the scintillating materials have been evaluated with the goal of having a sufficiently fast phosphor screen to allow time gating for minimizing neutron-induced background. Signal/Background (SBR) and Signal/Noise (SNR) ratios (limited to x-rays) have been calculated for different commercially-available scintillators, both showing adequate values with either a tantalum or a platinum pinhole substrate.« less
  • X-ray imaging will be an important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). However, high neutron yields will make x-ray imaging much more difficult than it is at current smaller facilities. We analyze the feasibility and performance of an Ignition X-Ray Imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at NIF. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. Highly magnified, spectrally-filtered images created using an array of pinholes placed close to the target will be projected onto a scintillator placed at the target chambermore » wall. A telescope will be used to relay the scintillator emission to a distant optical detector that is time-gated in order to minimize backgrounds, in particular from neutrons. The system is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios.« less
  • The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditionsmore » that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.« less