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Title: Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach

Abstract

Efforts during this second year focused on four areas: (1) continued searching and summarizing of published Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) investigation of CO adsorption/desorption and temperature programmed hydrogenation (TPH) of carbonaceous species after FTS on unsupported iron and alumina-supported iron catalysts; (3) activity tests of alumina-supported iron catalysts in a fixed bed reactor; (4) sequential design of experiments, for the collection of rate data in a Berty CSTR reactor, and nonlinear-regression analysis to obtain kinetic parameters. Literature sources describing mechanistic and kinetic studies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts were compiled in a review. Temperature-programmed desorption/reaction methods (the latter using mass-spectrometry detection and also thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)) were utilized to study CO adsorption/-desorption on supported and unsupported iron catalysts. Molecular and dissociative adsorptions of CO occur on iron catalysts at 25-150 C. The amounts adsorbed and bond strengths of adsorption are influenced by supports and promoters. That CO adsorbs dissociatively on polycrystalline Fe at temperatures well below those of FT reaction indicates that CO dissociation is facile and unlikely to be the rate-limiting step during FTS. Carbonaceous species formed after FT reaction for only 5 minutes at 200 C weremore » initially hydrogenated under mild, isothermal condition (200 C and 1 atm), followed by TPH to 800 C. During the mild, isothermal hydrogenation, only about 0.1-0.2 mL of atomic carbon is apparently removed, while during TPH to 800 C multilayer equivalents of atomic, polymeric, carbidic, and graphitic carbons are removed. Rates of CO conversion on alumina-supported iron catalysts at 220-260 C and 20 atm are correlated well by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression, derived assuming carbon hydrogenation to CH and OH recombination to water to be rate-determining steps. In the coming year, studies will focus on quantitative determination of the rates of kinetically-relevant elementary steps on Fe catalysts with/without K and Pt promoters and at various levels of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support, providing a database for understanding (1) effects of promoter and support on elementary kinetic parameters and (2) for validation of computational models that incorporate effects of surface structure and promoters. Kinetic parameters will be incorporated into a microkinetics model, enabling prediction of rate without invoking assumptions, e.g. of a rate-determining step or a most-abundant surface intermediate. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on two model surfaces: (1) Fe(110) with 1/4 ML subsurface carbon, and (2) Fe(110) with 1/4 ML Pt adatoms. Reaction networks for FTS on these systems were characterized in full detail by evaluating the thermodynamics and kinetics of each elementary step. We discovered that subsurface C stabilizes all the reactive intermediates, in contrast to Pt, which destabilizes most of them. A comparative study of the reactivities of the modified-Fe surfaces against pure Fe is expected to yield a more comprehensive understanding of promotion mechanisms for FTS on Fe.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Wisconsin
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
884858
DOE Contract Number:  
FC26-03NT41966
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ADSORPTION; CARBON; CATALYSTS; CHEMISTRY; DESIGN; DETECTION; DISSOCIATION; FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS; FUNCTIONALS; HYDROGENATION; IRON; KINETICS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; PACKED BEDS; PROMOTERS; RECOMBINATION; THERMODYNAMICS; VALIDATION; WATER

Citation Formats

Mavrikakis, Manos, Dumesic, James A, Gokhale, Amit A, Nabar, Rahul P, Bartholomew, Calvin H, Zou, Hu, and Critchfield, Brian. Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/884858.
Mavrikakis, Manos, Dumesic, James A, Gokhale, Amit A, Nabar, Rahul P, Bartholomew, Calvin H, Zou, Hu, & Critchfield, Brian. Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach. United States. doi:10.2172/884858.
Mavrikakis, Manos, Dumesic, James A, Gokhale, Amit A, Nabar, Rahul P, Bartholomew, Calvin H, Zou, Hu, and Critchfield, Brian. Fri . "Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach". United States. doi:10.2172/884858. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/884858.
@article{osti_884858,
title = {Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach},
author = {Mavrikakis, Manos and Dumesic, James A and Gokhale, Amit A and Nabar, Rahul P and Bartholomew, Calvin H and Zou, Hu and Critchfield, Brian},
abstractNote = {Efforts during this second year focused on four areas: (1) continued searching and summarizing of published Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) investigation of CO adsorption/desorption and temperature programmed hydrogenation (TPH) of carbonaceous species after FTS on unsupported iron and alumina-supported iron catalysts; (3) activity tests of alumina-supported iron catalysts in a fixed bed reactor; (4) sequential design of experiments, for the collection of rate data in a Berty CSTR reactor, and nonlinear-regression analysis to obtain kinetic parameters. Literature sources describing mechanistic and kinetic studies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts were compiled in a review. Temperature-programmed desorption/reaction methods (the latter using mass-spectrometry detection and also thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)) were utilized to study CO adsorption/-desorption on supported and unsupported iron catalysts. Molecular and dissociative adsorptions of CO occur on iron catalysts at 25-150 C. The amounts adsorbed and bond strengths of adsorption are influenced by supports and promoters. That CO adsorbs dissociatively on polycrystalline Fe at temperatures well below those of FT reaction indicates that CO dissociation is facile and unlikely to be the rate-limiting step during FTS. Carbonaceous species formed after FT reaction for only 5 minutes at 200 C were initially hydrogenated under mild, isothermal condition (200 C and 1 atm), followed by TPH to 800 C. During the mild, isothermal hydrogenation, only about 0.1-0.2 mL of atomic carbon is apparently removed, while during TPH to 800 C multilayer equivalents of atomic, polymeric, carbidic, and graphitic carbons are removed. Rates of CO conversion on alumina-supported iron catalysts at 220-260 C and 20 atm are correlated well by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression, derived assuming carbon hydrogenation to CH and OH recombination to water to be rate-determining steps. In the coming year, studies will focus on quantitative determination of the rates of kinetically-relevant elementary steps on Fe catalysts with/without K and Pt promoters and at various levels of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support, providing a database for understanding (1) effects of promoter and support on elementary kinetic parameters and (2) for validation of computational models that incorporate effects of surface structure and promoters. Kinetic parameters will be incorporated into a microkinetics model, enabling prediction of rate without invoking assumptions, e.g. of a rate-determining step or a most-abundant surface intermediate. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on two model surfaces: (1) Fe(110) with 1/4 ML subsurface carbon, and (2) Fe(110) with 1/4 ML Pt adatoms. Reaction networks for FTS on these systems were characterized in full detail by evaluating the thermodynamics and kinetics of each elementary step. We discovered that subsurface C stabilizes all the reactive intermediates, in contrast to Pt, which destabilizes most of them. A comparative study of the reactivities of the modified-Fe surfaces against pure Fe is expected to yield a more comprehensive understanding of promotion mechanisms for FTS on Fe.},
doi = {10.2172/884858},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {3}
}