skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

Abstract

The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasingmore » policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency andRenewable Energy. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for TechnologyDevelopment. Office of the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs; US Agency for International Development
OSTI Identifier:
883116
Report Number(s):
LBNL-60144
R&D Project: 5726P2; BnR: WI0101000
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency inBuildings: Less is More -- En Route to Zero Energy Buildings, AsilomarConference Center, Pacific Grove, California, August 13-18,2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29; public sector energy management energy-efficient governmentpurchasing public procurement China Mexico PEPS

Citation Formats

Van Wie McGrory, Laura, Coleman, Philip, Fridley, David, Harris,Jeffrey, and Villasenor Franco, Edgar. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Van Wie McGrory, Laura, Coleman, Philip, Fridley, David, Harris,Jeffrey, & Villasenor Franco, Edgar. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down. United States.
Van Wie McGrory, Laura, Coleman, Philip, Fridley, David, Harris,Jeffrey, and Villasenor Franco, Edgar. Wed . "Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/883116.
@article{osti_883116,
title = {Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down},
author = {Van Wie McGrory, Laura and Coleman, Philip and Fridley, David and Harris,Jeffrey and Villasenor Franco, Edgar},
abstractNote = {The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 10 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Wed May 10 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • Nuclear engineering courses are generally taught from a top-down pedagogical perspective; i.e., one begins with a body of knowledge drawn from advanced nuclear science, engineering, and experience and from this distills a selected part to match the intellectual capacity of the class. This pedagogical approach has evidently been most effect at the graduate level of instruction as evidenced by the ready entry of masters and doctoral students into the professions. A schematic depiction of this approach is suggested and is extended to the undergraduate level of nuclear engineering education.
  • Recent work by Phillips et al and Selby et al has shown that influence diagram methodology can be a useful analytical tool in reactor safety studies. In some instances, an influence diagram can be used as a graphical representation of probabilistic dependence within a system or event sequence. Under these circumstances, Bayesian statistics is employed to transform the relationships depicted in the influence diagram into the correct expression for a desired marginal probability (e.g., the top node). In the references cited above, the authors demonstrated the usefulness of influence diagrams for assessing the reliability of operator performance during pressurized thermalmore » shock transients. In addition, the use of influence diagrams identified the critical variables that had the greatest impact on operator reliability for a particular scenario (e.g., control room design, procedures, etc.). Top-down and bottom-up algorithms have emerged as the dominant methods for quantifying influence diagrams. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a potential error in employing the bottom-up algorithm when dealing with interdependencies.« less
  • Recent work by Phillips and Selby has shown that influence diagram methodology can be a useful analytical tool in reactor safety studies. In some instances an influence diagram can be used as a graphical representation of probabilistic dependence within a system or event sequence. Under these circumstances, Bayesian statistics is employed to transform the relationships depicted in the influence diagram into the correct expression for a desired marginal probability (e.g. the top node). Top-down and bottom-up algorithms have emerged as the dominant methods for quantifying influence diagrams. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a potential error in employingmore » the bottom-up algorithm when dealing with interdependencies.« less
  • Recent work by Phillips et al., and Selby et al., has shown that influence diagram methodology can be a useful analytical tool in reactor safety studies. An influence diagram is a graphical representation of probabilistic dependence within a system or event sequence. Bayesian statistics are employed to transform the relationships depicted in the influence diagram into the correct expression for a desired marginal probability (e.g. the top event). As with fault trees, top-down and bottom-up algorithms have emerged as the dominant methods for quantifying influence diagrams. Purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a potential error in employing the bottom-upmore » algorithm when dealing with interdependencies. In addition, the computing efficiency of both methods is discussed.« less
  • Due to the ecological complexity of many stressed ecosystems, large field studies have the disadvantage of having to deal with diverse sets of stressors involving both chemical impacts and habitat changes. Toxicologically-oriented studies have traditionally been mechanistically focused, attempting to develop an understanding of the interactions between chemical availability and physiological responses of aquatic organisms. This has led to the development of epidemiological techniques, reductionist approaches, ``cause-effect`` studies and ``biomarkers``. On the other hand, ecological studies have traditionally been descriptive in nature, attempting to develop an understanding of the interaction of aquatic communities with their habitat. This philosophy has encouragedmore » holistic approaches and integrative measurements. The two approaches have not evolved from a common philosophical basis and, despite the attempted marriage of these philosophies into the discipline of ecotoxicology, studies are often forced into a compromise between the two approaches. This paper summarizes some of the differences between the two approaches, and describes a conceptual framework. This framework may aid managers in developing an improved understanding of field surveys, allowing for improved study designs and more appropriate interpretation of data. Examples from recent studies will be used to show how the development of a tiered approach to impact assessment and management may aid in the evolution of the field studies to address the complex issues facing the management of natural ecosystems, such as the Great Lakes.« less