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Title: Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

Abstract

Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
882347
Report Number(s):
SAND2005-7301
TRN: US200614%%61
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; ALTERNATING CURRENT; ELECTRIC POWER; POWER SYSTEMS; POWER TRANSMISSION LINES; SECURITY; Data transmission systems.; Electric power systems-Mathematical models.

Citation Formats

Phillips, Laurence R., Tejani, Bankim, Margulies, Jonathan, Hills, Jason L., Richardson, Bryan T., Baca, Micheal J., and Weiland, Laura. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/882347.
Phillips, Laurence R., Tejani, Bankim, Margulies, Jonathan, Hills, Jason L., Richardson, Bryan T., Baca, Micheal J., & Weiland, Laura. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.. United States. doi:10.2172/882347.
Phillips, Laurence R., Tejani, Bankim, Margulies, Jonathan, Hills, Jason L., Richardson, Bryan T., Baca, Micheal J., and Weiland, Laura. Thu . "Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.". United States. doi:10.2172/882347. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/882347.
@article{osti_882347,
title = {Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.},
author = {Phillips, Laurence R. and Tejani, Bankim and Margulies, Jonathan and Hills, Jason L. and Richardson, Bryan T. and Baca, Micheal J. and Weiland, Laura},
abstractNote = {Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.},
doi = {10.2172/882347},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}

Technical Report:

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  • References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).
  • The Entergy System includes, as part of its service area, the cities of New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and vicinity in the southern end of its network. There is sufficient local generation available in this sub-region to meet its normal load demand. However, under certain operating conditions, it is necessary to transfer power into this region from northern generation. Under such operating conditions, the Amite South Interface (ASI) becomes a critical interface for reliability and economic operation of the Entergy system. The import capability across this interface is limited by the Conway-Bagatelle 230 kV line under contingency loss of the Willowmore » Glen-Waterford 500 kV line. Under EPRI project RP3789-02, this study provided a survey of the key aspects of a FACTS application study in the area of the Amite South Interface in the Entergy system. The study focused on classic thermal, transient and small signal stability concerns. FACTS solutions were considered as a means of addressing these issues. Several solutions to this classic interface thermal limit problem were evaluated, Among these, several locations for phase shifting transformers which could alleviate post-contingency thermal overloads and provide some system efficiency improvements were identified. A rough economic analysis for these devices was shown. To address small signal stability concerns, and to illustrate the process of setting up the initial design of such a device, fast control of one of the potential solutions to the thermal constraints was evaluated. Several software problems related to this process were encountered, and suggestions/solutions to these problems were described. This study focused on the dynamic performance of a TCPST on the French Branch-Slidell 230 kV line, and evaluation techniques were illustrated for this site. The potential for improvement in interarea damping was shown.« less
  • Under EPRI project RP3022-12, Ontario Hydro studied various solutions to improve the stability of the Byron plant; a nuclear plant located in north central Illinois, and owned by Commonwealth Edison (CE). The stability limitation, as identified by CE, is loss of synchronism under certain second local transmission contingencies, with both Byron units operating at full capacity during light system load levels. The identified stability limitation can be solved by the addition of a 345 kV circuit. However, a new circuit may not be a feasible solution. A braking resistor, switched shunt, or series capacitors can also solve the stability problem.more » Shunt or series capacitors, or fast static exciters can improve the voltage dip which follows the fault clearing. More detailed technical and economic studies are needed to determine the preferred solution.« less
  • This report evaluated the potential for applying Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers on the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system. Part A of this report describes the potential voltage collapse resulting from a loss of the West Point transformer, as well as potential solutions. an economic evaluation was performed to provide a comparison between the various conventional, FACTS and hybrid solutions. Part B of the report describes the potential application of FACTS controllers, specifically static synchronous condensers, to loss-of-infeed problems. This section also includes an economic evaluation that compares the various solutions. Part C of this final report describes methodsmore » to increase the interchange capability of the TVA system.« less
  • The objective of the study is to evaluate the dynamic performance of the transmission interface between Southern Company (SC) and Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) as it is affected by the addition of reactive compensation to the existing 500 kV tie lines. The focus of this study is on the voltage stability of the interface, and the dynamic performance of the two interconnected systems under conditions of voltage stress. The potential to increase transfer on the interface through the addition of series compensation is examined. The intent is to provide quantitative insight into performance, and to explore how Flexiblemore » AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers might be employed to improve that performance. Consideration of the economics of the reinforcement is made. The use of series compensation is demonstrated to allow a substantial improvement in the power transfer capability and loss of performance of the system. The possibility of including Thyristor Controller Series Compensation (TCSC) in a voltage regulating mode is introduced. One significant benefit of this is to permit using larger series compensation banks than could otherwise be allowed using only conventional series compensation in a single site. This result has significance since this introduces the potential for utilities to develop fewer sites than might otherwise be required. It is shown that, even though a conventional compensation plan may be the preferred option for this specific application, a TCSC-augmented approach could be the preferred option in other situations. In addition, a TCSC-augmented approach may be preferable for systems where improved voltage controllability, reduced SSR risk, and better system damping, are significant. The results indicate that TCSC is a viable option for utilities whose operating constraints tend to be voltage and postcontingency power flow, as well as systems with faster dynamic concerns.« less