skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

Abstract

Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This includedmore » pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Environmental Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
881975
Report Number(s):
na
06-03-P; TRN: US201103%%53
DOE Contract Number:
AI09-00SR22188
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Weed Science; Journal Volume: 54; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; FORESTS; HERBICIDES; LEACHATES; LEACHING; MANAGEMENT; PINES; REGENERATION; RESIDUES; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; SEEDLINGS; SOILS; TREES; UREA; Groundwater contamination, herbicide dissipation, lysimeter.

Citation Formats

Berisford, Yvette, C., Bush, Parshall, B., and Taylor, John, W. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Berisford, Yvette, C., Bush, Parshall, B., & Taylor, John, W. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites. United States.
Berisford, Yvette, C., Bush, Parshall, B., and Taylor, John, W. Wed . "Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_881975,
title = {Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites},
author = {Berisford, Yvette, C. and Bush, Parshall, B. and Taylor, John, W.},
abstractNote = {Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).},
doi = {},
journal = {Weed Science},
number = 1,
volume = 54,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) andmore » soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.« less
  • Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of (/sup 14/C)metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of (/supmore » 14/C)chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils.« less
  • In studies on natural regeneration of Pinus taeda and P. echinata, mineral soil exposure, light intensity under residual stands and establishment of pine seedlings after one year were studied on 1-acre plots that had been harvested to remove stems greater than or equal to 4 inch or greater than or equal to 1 inch d.b.h. in winter and summer in mixed pine/broadleaved stands in Dawson Forest, Georgia, USA. Few seedlings became established after summer logging, but acceptable establishment followed winter harvesting. Removal of all woody biomass to 1 inch d.b.h. limit resulted in 94% stocking of pine seedlings. Harvesting tomore » a 1-inch limit exposed twice as much mineral soil and allowed more groundlevel points to receive high intensity insolation. 7 references.« less
  • Environmental concerns and more plant-specific chemical cominations have changed the way electric utilities apply and select herbicides to clear brush and weeds from their rights-of-way. Broadcast aerial spraying was made more selective and combined with land-based methods. Utilities are now using manual and mechanical techniques in environmentally sensitive area, although the major part of the clearing is done with sprays. New distribution lines are facing stricter conrols on the timing and method of brush conrol. The restrictions on spraying require closer supervision and are more costly, but spraying is still the most economical method. New refinements will add growth regulators,more » late-fall spraying, less toxic sprays and pellets, and a trend away from fuel oil as a carrier.« less