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Title: Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.

Abstract

The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five surface amendments (treatments) was implemented. The three blocks included (1) ripping and compost amended, (2) ripping only, and (3) control. Surface treatments included (1) topsoil, (2) fly ash, (3) compost, (4) apatite, and (5) control. Inoculated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and Virginia (Pinus virginiana) pine trees were planted on each plot. After three growing seasons, certain treatments were shown to be favorable for the establishment of vegetation on the basin. Seedlings located on block A developed a rooting system that penetrated into the basin media without significant adverse effects to the plant. However, seedlings on blocks B and C displayed poor rooting conditions and high mortality, regardless of surface treatment. Pore-water samples from lysimeters in block C were characterized by high acidity, Fe, Mn, Al, sulfate, and traceelement concentrations. Water-quality characteristics of the topsoil plots in block A, however, conformed to regulatory protocols. A decreasemore » in soil-moisture content was observed in the rooting zone of plots that were successfully revegetated, which suggests that the trees, in combination with the surface treatments, influenced the water balance by facilitating water loss through transpiration and thereby reducing the likelihood of unwanted surface runoff and/or drainage effluent.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE - Office of Environmental Management (EM)
OSTI Identifier:
881968
Report Number(s):
na
Journal ID: ISSN 1075--9565; 05-23-P; TRN: US201103%%177
DOE Contract Number:
AI09-00SR22188
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Geosciences; Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; COAL; COMBUSTION; COMPOST; DRAINAGE; FLY ASH; LYSIMETERS; MORTALITY; PH VALUE; PINES; PLANTS; RUNOFF; SANITARY LANDFILLS; SEASONS; SEEDLINGS; STABILIZATION; SURFACE TREATMENTS; TRANSPIRATION; TREES; WATER QUALITY; Phytostabilization; coal; waste; landfill

Citation Formats

Barton, Christopher, Marx, Donald, Adriano, Domy, Koo, Bon Jun, Newman, Lee, Czapka, Stephen, and Blake, John. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1306/eg.06210404021.
Barton, Christopher, Marx, Donald, Adriano, Domy, Koo, Bon Jun, Newman, Lee, Czapka, Stephen, & Blake, John. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.. United States. doi:10.1306/eg.06210404021.
Barton, Christopher, Marx, Donald, Adriano, Domy, Koo, Bon Jun, Newman, Lee, Czapka, Stephen, and Blake, John. Thu . "Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.". United States. doi:10.1306/eg.06210404021.
@article{osti_881968,
title = {Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.},
author = {Barton, Christopher and Marx, Donald and Adriano, Domy and Koo, Bon Jun and Newman, Lee and Czapka, Stephen and Blake, John},
abstractNote = {The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five surface amendments (treatments) was implemented. The three blocks included (1) ripping and compost amended, (2) ripping only, and (3) control. Surface treatments included (1) topsoil, (2) fly ash, (3) compost, (4) apatite, and (5) control. Inoculated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and Virginia (Pinus virginiana) pine trees were planted on each plot. After three growing seasons, certain treatments were shown to be favorable for the establishment of vegetation on the basin. Seedlings located on block A developed a rooting system that penetrated into the basin media without significant adverse effects to the plant. However, seedlings on blocks B and C displayed poor rooting conditions and high mortality, regardless of surface treatment. Pore-water samples from lysimeters in block C were characterized by high acidity, Fe, Mn, Al, sulfate, and traceelement concentrations. Water-quality characteristics of the topsoil plots in block A, however, conformed to regulatory protocols. A decrease in soil-moisture content was observed in the rooting zone of plots that were successfully revegetated, which suggests that the trees, in combination with the surface treatments, influenced the water balance by facilitating water loss through transpiration and thereby reducing the likelihood of unwanted surface runoff and/or drainage effluent.},
doi = {10.1306/eg.06210404021},
journal = {Environmental Geosciences},
number = 4,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}
  • Barton, Christopher, L. Paddock, Cromanek, S. Maharaj, and J. Seaman. 2005. Metal attenuation processes in a landfill containing coal combustion waste: Implications for remediation. Env. Geosci. 12(1): 45-55. Abstract - The 488-D Ash Basin (488-DAB) is an unlined, earthen landfill containing approximately 1 million t of dry ash and coal reject material at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The pyritic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage, which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatened biota in adjacent wetlands. Establishment of a vegetation cover to both deplete oxygen throughmore » biological means and optimize evapotranspiration has been established as a remedial alternative for reducing acidic drainage generation in the 488-DAB. To determine the potential benefits of a cover, a series of characterization studies were conducted prior to field deployment to gain a better understanding of the metal attenuation processes and to use water quality and substrate data to evaluate the potential effectiveness of this remedial approach. The characterization study indicated that metal attenuation was primarily controlled by fluctuating redox and pH gradients associated with alternating saturated and unsaturated conditions in the basin. Based on this information, a vegetative cover could reduce the production of acid leachate over time, pending that oxygen transport to the subsurface is limited.« less
  • The 488-D Ash Basin (488-DAB) is an unlined, earthen landfill containing approximately 1 million t of dry ash and coal reject material at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The pyritic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage, which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatened biota in adjacent wetlands. Establishment of a vegetation cover to both deplete oxygen through biological means and optimize evapotranspiration has been established as a remedial alternative for reducing acidic drainage generation in the 488-DAB. To determine the potential benefits of a cover, a seriesmore » of characterization studies were conducted prior to field deployment to gain a better understanding of the metal attenuation processes and to use water quality and substrate data to evaluate the potential effectiveness of this remedial approach. The characterization study indicated that metal attenuation was primarily controlled by fluctuating redox and pH gradients associated with alternating saturated and unsaturated conditions in the basin. Based on this information, a vegetative cover could reduce the production of acid leachate over time, pending that oxygen transport to the subsurface is limited.« less
  • Previous laboratory studies have shown that lignite-derived fly ash emitted mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, whereas bituminous- and subbituminous-derived fly ash samples adsorbed Hg from the air. In addition, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were found to have higher Hg emission rates than fly ash. This study investigated in situ Hg emissions at a blended bituminous-subbituminous ash land-fill in the Great Lakes area and a lignite-derived ash and FGD solids landfill in the Midwestern United States using a dynamic field chamber. Fly ash and saturated FGD materials emitted Hg to atmosphere at low rates (- 0.1 to 1.2 ng/m{supmore » 2}hr), whereas FGD material mixed with fly ash and pyrite exhibited higher emission rates ({approximately} 10 ng/m{sup 2}hr) but were still comparable with natural background soils (- 0.3 to 13 ng/m{sup 2}hr). Air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were important factors correlated with measured Hg fluxes. Field study results were not consistent with corresponding laboratory observations in that fluxes measured in the latter were higher and more variable. This is hypothesized to be partially an artifact of the flux measurement methods. 19 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.« less
  • Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale combustion system was used to provide insights into effects of combustion parameters on PCDD and PCDF pollutant formation. A 24-run, statistically designed test matrix varied DRDF and/or coal firing rates along with a range of process variables including calcium hydroxide injection, hydrogen chloride (HCl) concentration, flue gas temperature, quench, and residence time such that the results would be relatable to a wide variety of combustion conditions. Statistical analysis of the molar homologue profiles enabled interpretation based on non-confounding variables. A multivariate, generalized additive model,more » based on transformations of the design variables, described 83% of the variation of the profiles characterized by log ratios of the homologue molar concentrations. This method identifies the operating parameters that are most significant in determining the PCDD/F homologue profiles. The model can be exercised to predict homologue profiles through input of these system-specific operating parameters. For example, both higher HCl and sulfur dioxide concentrations favor higher relative formation of the lower chlorinated PCDF homologues.« less
  • The authors built a prototype cyclone waste liquid incinerator and tested it for several kinds of process waste liquid. The results have shown that it is possible to collect more than 97% of the inorganic salts contained in the waste liquid within an incinerator. The amount of salt deposition on the heating pipe surfaces can be reduced to 1/30 or less of that in the spray combustion system, and efficient heat recovery from the flue gas is possible. 3 refs.