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Title: Calibration Systems Final Report

Abstract

The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
878274
Report Number(s):
PNNL-15671
NN2001000; TRN: US200611%%54
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; CALIBRATION; DETECTION; LASERS; PROLIFERATION; STABILITY; WEAPONS

Citation Formats

Myers, Tanya L., Broocks, Bryan T., and Phillips, Mark C. Calibration Systems Final Report. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/878274.
Myers, Tanya L., Broocks, Bryan T., & Phillips, Mark C. Calibration Systems Final Report. United States. doi:10.2172/878274.
Myers, Tanya L., Broocks, Bryan T., and Phillips, Mark C. Wed . "Calibration Systems Final Report". United States. doi:10.2172/878274. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/878274.
@article{osti_878274,
title = {Calibration Systems Final Report},
author = {Myers, Tanya L. and Broocks, Bryan T. and Phillips, Mark C.},
abstractNote = {The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.},
doi = {10.2172/878274},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology agreed in 1979 to collect the nuclear data from any measurements in their laboratories that were pertinent to the calibration of the efficiency of germanium spectrometer systems. This report is composed of the contributions from 14 laboratories, as listed in part II. If a self-contained contribution was received, it has been incorporated without editing. Less formal communications, or references to published articles, are discussed in short comments prepared by the compilers. Part IV is a compilation of a selected portion of the data, arrangedmore » by radionuclide.« less
  • Research was conducted to meet the need of the electric power industry for an efficient and less costly approach to calibration of measurements and diagnosis of defective instruments in power systems. The pattern in systematic errors caused by various instruments in the measurement stream was recognized and minimized by adjustments of measurement coefficients in the data base at the central control system. Two methods were explored for evaluation of systematic errors: the Newton iterative method, and a rapid convergent descent method minimization, both applied to the over-determined system of equations which the routine and repetitive measurements at the control centermore » provide. The methods were laboratory tested with generated data, providing satisfactory results. Field experiments in three transmission stations and one distribution substation support the feasibility of the approach.« less
  • Energy Management Control Systems (EMCS) cannot function properly or efficiently without accurate temperature measurements since temperature is one of the fundamental measurements of any EMCS. This report was written for the purpose of describing various methods of on-site calibration of temperature sensing devices used in EMCS and to review the characteristics of these devices that are directly related to calibration. The significance of recording the results of each calibration is emphasized and the possible effects of systematic errors in temperature monitoring systems is discussed.
  • The Calibrations project has been exploring alternative technologies for calibration of passive sensors in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we have investigated using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because these devices offer several advantages over conventional blackbodies such as reductions in size and weight while providing a spectral source in the IR with high output power. These devices can provide a rapid, multi-level radiance scheme to fit any nonlinear behavior as well as a spectral calibration that includes the fore-optics, which is currently not available for on-board calibration systems.
  • Remote infrared (IR) sensing provides a valuable method for detection and identification of materials associated with nuclear proliferation. Current challenges for remote sensors include minimizing the size, mass, and power requirements for cheaper, smaller, and more deployable instruments without affecting the measurement performance. One area that is often overlooked is sensor calibration design that is optimized to minimize the cost, size, weight, and power of the payload. Yet, an on-board calibration system is essential to account for changes in the detector response once the instrument has been removed from the laboratory. The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratorymore » (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact quantum cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared sensor systems in order to provide both a spectral and radiometric calibration while minimizing the impact on the instrument payload. In FY05, PNNL demonstrated a multi-level radiance scheme that provides six radiance levels for an enhanced linearity check compared to the currently accepted two-point scheme. PNNL began testing the repeatability of this scheme using a cryogenically cooled, single-mode quantum cascade laser (QCL). A cyclic variation in the power was observed that was attributed to the thermal cycling of the laser's dewar. In FY06, PNNL continued testing this scheme and installed an auxiliary liquid nitrogen reservoir to limit the thermal cycling effects. Although better repeatability was achieved over a longer time period, power fluctuations were still observed due to the thermal cycling. Due to the limitations with the cryogenic system, PNNL began testing Fabry-Perot QCLs that operate continuous-wave (cw) or quasi-cw at room temperature (RT) in FY06. PNNL demonstrated a multi-level scheme that provides five radiance levels in 105 seconds with excellent repeatability. We have continued testing this repeatability in FY07. A burn-in effect appears in which the power increases over a certain time period. Repeatability better than 1%, however, is demonstrated for most of the radiance levels after this initial burn-in. In FY06, PNNL also began investigating a fiber-coupled RT QCL for a compact IR calibration source. PNNL demonstrated a uniform beam profile by measuring a time-averaged response and modulating the fiber optic with a motor to minimize the effects of speckle. In FY07, PNNL examined the power stability of fiber-coupled QCLs. Feedback appears to degrade the stability so that anti-reflective coatings for fibers may be essential. In FY07, PNNL continued to investigate the stability of room temperature QCLs as well as the measurement technique to provide a quantitative estimate for the measurement uncertainty. We designed and built a custom environmental enclosure to reduce the measurement uncertainty. After an initial burn-in, we have achieved uncertainties better than 0.1% for data collected over almost 100 hours of operation. We also built a bench-top system to demonstrate how the QC laser can be used to calibrate a microbolometer array and illustrated the importance of a multi-point calibration.« less