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Title: XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Cluster of Galaxies 2a 0335+096

Abstract

We present here the results of a deep (130 ks) XMM-Newton observation of the cluster of galaxies 2A 0335+096. The deep exposure allows us to study in detail its temperature structure and its elemental abundances. We fit three different thermal models and find that the multi-temperature wdem model fits our data best. We find that the abundance structure of the cluster is consistent with a scenario where the relative number of Type Ia supernovae contributing to the enrichment of the intra-cluster medium is {approx}25%, while the relative number of core collapse supernovae is {approx}75%. Comparison of the observed abundances to the supernova yields does not allow us to put any constrains on the contribution of Pop III stars to the enrichment of the ICM. Radial abundance profiles show a strong central peak of both Type Ia and core collapse supernova products. Both the temperature and iron abundance maps show an asymmetry in the direction of the elongated morphology of the surface brightness. In particular the temperature map shows a sharp change over a brightness edge on the southern side of the core, which was identified as a cold front in the Chandra data. This suggests that the cluster is inmore » the process of a merger with a subcluster. Moreover, we find that the blobs or filaments discovered in the core of the cluster by Chandra are, contrary to the previous results, colder than the ambient gas and they appear to be in pressure equilibrium with their environment.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
878003
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-11633
astro-ph/0512401; TRN: US200609%%114
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABUNDANCE; ASYMMETRY; BRIGHTNESS; GALAXIES; IRON; MORPHOLOGY; SPECTROSCOPY; STARS; SUPERNOVAE; Astrophysics,ASTRO

Citation Formats

Werner, Norbert, /SRON, Utrecht, de Plaa, J., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Kaastra, J.S., /SRON, Utrecht, Vink, Jacco, Bleeker, J.A.M., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Tamura, T. /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci., Peterson, J.R., /KIPAC, Menlo Park, Verbunt, F., and /Utrecht U. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Cluster of Galaxies 2a 0335+096. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/878003.
Werner, Norbert, /SRON, Utrecht, de Plaa, J., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Kaastra, J.S., /SRON, Utrecht, Vink, Jacco, Bleeker, J.A.M., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Tamura, T. /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci., Peterson, J.R., /KIPAC, Menlo Park, Verbunt, F., & /Utrecht U. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Cluster of Galaxies 2a 0335+096. United States. doi:10.2172/878003.
Werner, Norbert, /SRON, Utrecht, de Plaa, J., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Kaastra, J.S., /SRON, Utrecht, Vink, Jacco, Bleeker, J.A.M., /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U., Tamura, T. /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci., Peterson, J.R., /KIPAC, Menlo Park, Verbunt, F., and /Utrecht U. Tue . "XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Cluster of Galaxies 2a 0335+096". United States. doi:10.2172/878003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/878003.
@article{osti_878003,
title = {XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Cluster of Galaxies 2a 0335+096},
author = {Werner, Norbert and /SRON, Utrecht and de Plaa, J. and /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U. and Kaastra, J.S. and /SRON, Utrecht and Vink, Jacco and Bleeker, J.A.M. and /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht U. and Tamura, T. /Sagamihara, Inst. Space Astron. Sci. and Peterson, J.R. and /KIPAC, Menlo Park and Verbunt, F. and /Utrecht U.},
abstractNote = {We present here the results of a deep (130 ks) XMM-Newton observation of the cluster of galaxies 2A 0335+096. The deep exposure allows us to study in detail its temperature structure and its elemental abundances. We fit three different thermal models and find that the multi-temperature wdem model fits our data best. We find that the abundance structure of the cluster is consistent with a scenario where the relative number of Type Ia supernovae contributing to the enrichment of the intra-cluster medium is {approx}25%, while the relative number of core collapse supernovae is {approx}75%. Comparison of the observed abundances to the supernova yields does not allow us to put any constrains on the contribution of Pop III stars to the enrichment of the ICM. Radial abundance profiles show a strong central peak of both Type Ia and core collapse supernova products. Both the temperature and iron abundance maps show an asymmetry in the direction of the elongated morphology of the surface brightness. In particular the temperature map shows a sharp change over a brightness edge on the southern side of the core, which was identified as a cold front in the Chandra data. This suggests that the cluster is in the process of a merger with a subcluster. Moreover, we find that the blobs or filaments discovered in the core of the cluster by Chandra are, contrary to the previous results, colder than the ambient gas and they appear to be in pressure equilibrium with their environment.},
doi = {10.2172/878003},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The surface brightness distribution of hot intracluster gas in the 2A 0335+096 cluster of galaxies is presented. The intracluster gas is found to be nonisothermal. The surface brightness is deprojected to obtain density and temperature profiles of the intracluster gas. It is derived a central density of 0.023/cu cm and a central temperature of 1.8 x 10 to the 7th K. It is found that the hot gas is cooling and accreting onto the central dominant galaxy. Mass inflow rate between 14 and 200 solar masses/yr is derived for the gas inside a radius of 150 kpc from the center.more » Including the effects of heat conduction on the flow reduces the mass flow rate only beyond 25 kpc from the center. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, a total binding mass of 7.6 x 10 to the 13th solar masses is found within the maximum extent (720 kpc) of the source observed. The total X-ray gas observed has 38 percent of this mass. 33 references.« less
  • Observations of the central region of the galaxy cluster associated with 2A 0335+096, obtained in H-alpha, R, I, and b45 (4506 A with FWHM 355 A) using an 800 x 800-pixel CCD detector on the 4-m telescope at KPNO on December 27 and 30, 1986, are reported. The data are presented graphically and analyzed. Features discussed include a 17-kpc-long bar of H-alpha emission surrounded by filaments, a smaller elongated H-alpha structure (possibly an accretion disk) centered on the nucleus of the central galaxy, a secondary galaxy with a red H-alpha-bright nucleus located within the 17-kpc bar about 6 arcsec frommore » the central-galaxy nucleus, and evidence for excess blue emission (indicating star formation at about 8 solar mass/yr in the cooling flow). From the presence of dust in the emission-line gas it is inferred that theoretical models based on preferential formation of low-mass stars may not be applicable to this object. 17 references.« less
  • The cores of massive galaxy clusters, where hot gas is cooling rapidly, appear to undergo cycles of self-regulating energy feedback, in which active galactic nucleus (AGN) outbursts in the central galaxies episodically provide sufficient heating to offset much of the gas cooling. We use deep integral-field spectroscopy to study the optical line emission from the extended nebulae of three nearby brightest cluster galaxies and investigate how they are related to the processes of heating and cooling in the cluster cores. Two of these systems, A3581 and Sersic 159-03, appear to be experiencing phases of feedback that are dominated by themore » activity and output of a central AGN. A3581 shows evidence for significant interaction between the radio outflows and the optical nebula, in addition to accretion flows into the nucleus of the galaxy. X-ray and radio data show that Sersic 159-03 is dominated by the feedback of energy from the central AGN, but the kinematics of the optical nebula are consistent with infall or outflow of material along its bright filaments. The third system, 2A 0335+096, is dominated by mass accretion and cooling, and so we suggest that it is in an accumulation phase of the feedback cycle. The outer nebula forms a disk-like structure, {approx}14 kpc in radius, that rotates about the central galaxy with a velocity amplitude of {approx}200 km s{sup -1}. Overall, our data are consistent with ongoing AGN-driven feedback cycles occurring in these systems.« less
  • We present ALMA CO(1–0) and CO(3–2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster ( z  = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of 1.13 ± 0.15 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for 3.2 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companionmore » galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, 7.8 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 10{sup 4} K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 keV gas, indicating that the molecular gas has cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25–100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low-entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.« less
  • We present UV broadband photometry and optical emission-line measurements for a sample of 32 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in clusters of the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) with z = 0.06-0.18. The REXCESS clusters, chosen to study scaling relations in clusters of galaxies, have X-ray measurements of high quality. The trends of star formation and BCG colors with BCG and host properties can be investigated with this sample. The UV photometry comes from the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor, supplemented by existing archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer photometry. We detected H{alpha} and forbidden line emission in seven (22%) of these BCGs, inmore » optical spectra obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research Goodman spectrograph. All of these emission-line BCGs occupy clusters classified as cool cores (CCs) based on the central cooling time in the cluster core, for an emission-line incidence rate of 70% for BCGs in REXCESS CC clusters. Significant correlations between the H{alpha} equivalent widths, excess UV production in the BCG, and the presence of dense, X-ray bright intracluster gas with a short cooling time are seen, including the fact that all of the H{alpha} emitters inhabit systems with short central cooling times and high central intracluster medium densities. Estimates of the star formation rates based on H{alpha} and UV excesses are consistent with each other in these seven systems, ranging from 0.1to8 solar masses per year. The incidence of emission-line BCGs in the REXCESS sample is intermediate, somewhat lower than in other X-ray-selected samples ({approx}35%), and somewhat higher than but statistically consistent with optically selected, slightly lower redshift BCG samples ({approx}10%-15%). The UV-optical colors (UVW1 - R {approx}4.7 {+-} 0.3) of REXCESS BCGs without strong optical emission lines are consistent with those predicted from templates and observations of ellipticals dominated by old stellar populations. We see no trend in UV-optical colors with optical luminosity, R-K color, X-ray temperature, redshift, or offset between X-ray centroid and X-ray peak ((w)). The lack of such trends in these massive galaxies, particularly the ones lacking emission lines, suggests that the proportion of UV-emitting (200-300 nm) stars is insensitive to galaxy mass, cluster mass, cluster relaxation, and recent evolution, over the range of this sample.« less