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Title: MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

Abstract

The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
877772
Report Number(s):
UCRL-CONF-217217
TRN: US200608%%676
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at: SPIE CONFERENCE 6113: MEMS/MOEMS COMPONENTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS III, San Jose, CA, United States, Jan 21 - Jan 26, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; DESIGN; DETECTION; DISTRIBUTION; MIRRORS; OPTICS; PLANETS; STARS

Citation Formats

Macintosh, B A, Graham, J R, Oppenheimer, B, Poyneer, L, Sivaramakrishnan, A, and Veran, J. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection. United States: N. p., 2005. Web.
Macintosh, B A, Graham, J R, Oppenheimer, B, Poyneer, L, Sivaramakrishnan, A, & Veran, J. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection. United States.
Macintosh, B A, Graham, J R, Oppenheimer, B, Poyneer, L, Sivaramakrishnan, A, and Veran, J. Fri . "MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877772.
@article{osti_877772,
title = {MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection},
author = {Macintosh, B A and Graham, J R and Oppenheimer, B and Poyneer, L and Sivaramakrishnan, A and Veran, J},
abstractNote = {The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Fri Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}

Conference:
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  • ''Extreme'' adaptive optics systems are optimized for ultra-high-contrast applications, such as ground-based extrasolar planet detection. The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. We use a simple optical design to minimize wavefront error and maximize the experimentally achievable contrast. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Previously, we have demonstrated RMS wavefront errors of <1.5 nm and a contrast of >10{sup 7} over a substantial region using a shaped pupil without a deformablemore » mirror. Current work includes the installation and characterization of a 1024-actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, manufactured by Boston Micro-Machines for active wavefront control. Using the PSDI as the wavefront sensor we have flattened the deformable mirror to <1 nm within the controllable spatial frequencies and measured a contrast in the far field of >10{sup 6}. Consistent flattening required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. Ultimately this testbed will be used to test all aspects of the system architecture for an extrasolar planet-finding AO system.« less
  • Ground based adaptive optics is a potentially powerful technique for direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere imposes some fundamental limits, but the large size of ground-based telescopes compared to spacecraft can work to mitigate this. We are carrying out a design study for a dedicated ultra-high-contrast system, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager (XAOPI), which could be deployed on an 8-10m telescope in 2007. With a 4096-actuator MEMS deformable mirror it should achieve Strehl >0.9 in the near-IR. Using an innovative spatially filtered wavefront sensor, the system will be optimized to control scattered light overmore » a large radius and suppress artifacts caused by static errors. We predict that it will achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} at angular separations of 0.2-0.8 inches around a large sample of stars (R<7-10), sufficient to detect Jupiter-like planets through their near-IR emission over a wide range of ages and masses. We are constructing a high-contrast AO testbed to verify key concepts of our system, and present preliminary results here, showing an RMS wavefront error of <1.3 nm with a flat mirror.« less
  • As adaptive optics (AO) matures, it becomes possible to envision AO systems oriented towards specific important scientific goals rather than general-purpose systems. One such goal for the next decade is the direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. An 'extreme' adaptive optics (ExAO) system optimized for extrasolar planet detection will have very high actuator counts and rapid update rates - designed for observations of bright stars - and will require exquisite internal calibration at the nanometer level. In addition to extrasolar planet detection, such a system will be capable of characterizing dust disks around young or mature stars, outflows from evolvedmore » stars, and high Strehl ratio imaging even at visible wavelengths. The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics has carried out a detailed conceptual design study for such an instrument, dubbed the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager or XAOPI. XAOPI is a 4096-actuator AO system, notionally for the Keck telescope, capable of achieving contrast ratios >10{sup 7} at angular separations of 0.2-1'. ExAO system performance analysis is quite different than conventional AO systems - the spatial and temporal frequency content of wavefront error sources is as critical as their magnitude. We present here an overview of the XAOPI project, and an error budget highlighting the key areas determining achievable contrast. The most challenging requirement is for residual static errors to be less than 2 nm over the controlled range of spatial frequencies. If this can be achieved, direct imaging of extrasolar planets will be feasible within this decade.« less
  • We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of themore » trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.« less