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Title: Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report

Abstract

This milestone report identifies a minimum infrastructure that could support the introduction of hydrogen vehicles and develops and evaluates transition scenarios supported by this infrastructure.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
876663
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-540-38351
TRN: US200606%%547
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 08 HYDROGEN; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; HYDROGEN FUELS; FUEL SUBSTITUTION; SERVICE SECTOR; HYDROGEN-BASED ECONOMY; VEHICLES; HYDROGEN; INFRASTRUCTURE; H2A; ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES; FUELING STATIONS; INTERSTATE; Transportation

Citation Formats

Melendez, M., and Milbrandt, A. Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.2172/876663.
Melendez, M., & Milbrandt, A. Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report. United States. doi:10.2172/876663.
Melendez, M., and Milbrandt, A. Sun . "Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report". United States. doi:10.2172/876663. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/876663.
@article{osti_876663,
title = {Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report},
author = {Melendez, M. and Milbrandt, A.},
abstractNote = {This milestone report identifies a minimum infrastructure that could support the introduction of hydrogen vehicles and develops and evaluates transition scenarios supported by this infrastructure.},
doi = {10.2172/876663},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production whilemore » providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) has supported a series of analyses to evaluate alternative scenarios for deployment of millions of hydrogen fueled vehicles and supporting infrastructure. To ensure that these alternative market penetration scenarios took into consideration the thinking of the automobile manufacturers, energy companies, industrial hydrogen suppliers, and others from the private sector, DOE held several stakeholder meetings to explain the analyses, describe the models, and solicit comments about the methods, assumptions, and preliminary results (U.S. DOE, 2006a). The first stakeholder meeting was held on January 26, 2006, to solicit guidance during the initial phases of the analysis; this was followed by a second meeting on August 9-10, 2006, to review the preliminary results. A third and final meeting was held on January 31, 2007, to discuss the final analysis results. More than 60 hydrogen energy experts from industry, government, national laboratories, and universities attended these meetings and provided their comments to help guide DOE's analysis. The final scenarios attempt to reflect the collective judgment of the participants in these meetings. However, they should not be interpreted as having been explicitly endorsed by DOE or any of the stakeholders participating. The DOE analysis examined three vehicle penetration scenarios: Scenario 1--Production of thousands of vehicles per year by 2015 and hundreds of thousands per year by 2019. This option is expected to lead to a market penetration of 2.0 million fuel cell vehicles (FCV) by 2025. Scenario 2--Production of thousands of FCVs by 2013 and hundreds of thousands by 2018. This option is expected to lead to a market penetration of 5.0 million FCVs by 2025. Scenario 3--Production of thousands of FCVs by 2013, hundreds of thousands by 2018, and millions by 2021 such that market penetration is 10 million by 2025. Scenario 3 was formulated to comply with the NAS recommendation: 'DOE should map out and evaluate a transition plan consistent with developing the infrastructure and hydrogen resources necessary to support the committee's hydrogen vehicle penetration scenario, or another similar demand scenario (NAS, 2004, p. 4).' Each of the scenarios was extensively discussed at the stakeholder meetings and each received support from industry. Although there was no consensus on a particular vehicle penetration rate, it was agreed that this set of scenarios is inclusive of industry expectations and could provide a basis to interpolate or extrapolate the results to other cases. The purpose of the DOE study was not to select any one scenario but to assess the costs and impacts of achieving each.« less
  • Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.
  • This report covers the challenges to building an infrastructure for hydrogen, for use as transportation fuel. Deployment technologies and policies that could quicken deployment are addressed.
  • This report describes the deployment and demonstration of the first phase of the I/O infrastructure for Purple. The report and the references herein are intended to certify the completion of the following Level 2 Milestone from the ASC FY04-05 Implementation Plan, due at the end of Quarter 4 in FY05. The milestone is defined as follows: ''External networking infrastructure installation and performance analysis will be completed for the initial delivery of Purple. The external networking infrastructure includes incorporation of a new 10 Gigabit Ethernet fabric linking the platform to the LLNL High Performance Storage System (HPSS) and other center equipment.more » The LLNL archive will be upgraded to HPSS Release 5.1 to support the requirements of the machine and performance analysis will be completed using the newly deployed I/O infrastructure. Demonstrated throughput to the archive for this infrastructure will be a minimum of 1.5GB/s with a target of 3GB/s. Since Purple delivery is not scheduled until late Q3, demonstration of these performance goals will use parts of Purple and/or an aggregate of other existing resources.''« less
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