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Title: Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas

Abstract

High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
American Warrior, Inc.
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
876131
DOE Contract Number:
FG26-99BC15241
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY; HYDROCARBONS; KANSAS; LEASES; NATURAL GAS; OPERATING COST; PRESERVATION; PRODUCTION

Citation Formats

Scott Corsair. Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.2172/876131.
Scott Corsair. Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas. United States. doi:10.2172/876131.
Scott Corsair. Thu . "Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas". United States. doi:10.2172/876131. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/876131.
@article{osti_876131,
title = {Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas},
author = {Scott Corsair},
abstractNote = {High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.},
doi = {10.2172/876131},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005},
month = {Thu Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 2005}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steammore » generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.« less
  • An important purpose in developing coal gasification systems for low-Btu fuel gas is to make possible the use of coal in combined-cycle electric generating plants for Utility Service. Air-blown gasification systems will not reach their full potential of usefulness unless it has been proved that gas turbine engines of large ratings can be built with integral combustors. The main thrust of the gas turbine combustor development test program was to verify that fact. The technology of burning low heating value gases in slightly modified current gas turbine engine combustors has been demonstrated with 350/sup 0/F gas, typical of that whichmore » would result from coal gasification followed by cleaning with a wet scrubber. Following tests of three fuel injectors and ten combustors over a period of 21 months, a candidate combustor design was identified and considerable data on emissions and performance obtained. The candidate combustor was designed for low smoke emissions in the oil-fired mode, and as a result cannot operate in the low-heating-value gas mode below 50 percent load with many of the gases tested. More work is needed to extend the operating range on some gas compositions below this 50 percent load point. In the 50 percent to 100 percent load range, additional work remains to be done on wall cooling and exit temperature pattern while in the coal gas mode.« less
  • This research program was initiated to characterize problems associated with retrofitting existing utility boilers with low- and medium-Btu gases manufactured from commercially available coal conversion processes. All the experimental results were gathered from a pilot-scale furnace fired with a movable vane boiler burner at a heat input of 0.66 MW (2,250,000 Btu/hr). The low- and medium-Btu gases tested ranged in heating value from 3.7 to 11.2 MJ/m/sup 3/ (100 to 300 Btu/scf). They were synthetically produced with a natural gas reformer system. Data were collected to permit a comparison between natural gas and low-Btu gases in the areas of flamemore » stability, flame length, flame emissivity, furnace efficiency, and NO/sub x/ emissions. Flame stability was found to be very sensitive to fuel jet velocity. An injection velocity of 30.5 m/s (100 ft/s) was found to be optimum. Flame length decreases with increasing movable vane angle (swirl of the combustion air), and the low- and medium-Btu gases tested were generally shorter than those of natural gas. Good agreement was obtained between measured and calculated flame emissivities. NO emissions were ordered by adiabatic flame temperature. The use of adiabatic flame temperature provided a good empirical method of predicting NO emissions for the fuels tested.« less
  • Data were collected to evaluate the performance of a high-excess-air type burner when retrofit with low-Btu gases. The burner, a North American Model 4422-7 XSA, was fired on the IGT pilot-scale test furnace with a load simulating a section or zone of a refractory kiln. The low-Btu gases simulated for these commbustion trials were Koppers--Totzek oxygen (KTO), Wellman--Galusha air (WGA), and Winkler air (WA) fuel gases. KTO exhibited no flame stability problems at a 3 million Btu/hr firing rate with excess air levels from 10% to 77% - the maximum air flow our blower could attain. KTO did not requiremore » a burner pilot for stability. WGA fired at 3 million Btu/hr was stable with a pilot flame at excess air levels from 10% to the blower maximum, which was 65% excess air for WGA. With no pilot flame, WGA blew off in all cases. With the pilot, WA, at 3 million Btu/hr, did not have a stable flame, even with only 10% excess air; however, at 2.5 million Btu/hr WA had a stable flame at excess air levels from 10% to the maximum, 97%, with the pilot on. Blowoff occurred when the pilot was extinguished. KTO, with 50% excess air, gave a higher thermal efficiency and peak flame temperature than natural gas with the same excess air level. WGA fired at 10% excess air performed as well as the natural gas with 50% excess air in terms of thermal efficiency and exceeded natural gas in radiant flux. WGA, however, had a flame length about 3 times that of natural gas. WA at 2.5 million Btu/hr, 10% excess air had the same thermal efficiency (25%) as natural gas exhibited at 3.0 million Btu/hr with 50% excess air, but had lower gas temperatures and radiant flux.« less
  • Data were gathered to determine the performance of a kiln burner when retrofit with three low-Btu gases. The burner was fired on the IGT pilot-scale test furnaces with a load simulating the calcining and reaction zones of a cement kiln. The low- and medium-Btu gases simulated for these combustion trials were Koppers-Totzek oxygen, Wellman-Galusha air, and Winkler air fuel gases. Koppers-Totzek oxygen fuel gas was an excellent substitute fuel, exhibiting equal or better performance than natural gas. Wellman-Galusha air and Winkler air fuel gas both exhibited flame stability problems on the unmodified burner. These two fuels also gave lower thermalmore » efficiencies than natural gas and Koppers-Totzek oxygen fuel gas when fired on a modified fuel injector.« less