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Title: Transparent electrode for optical switch

Abstract

A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

Inventors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. (San Ramon, CA)
  2. (Livermore, CA)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
866002
Patent Number(s):
US 4615588
Assignee:
United States of America as represented by United States (Washington, DC) LLNL
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
transparent; electrode; optical; switch; pressure; gas; utilizing; ionized; glow; discharge; regime; forms; electro-optical; switches; comprises; region; crystal; plasma; formed; conductor; highly; uniform; conducting; energy; laser; beam; passing; exposed; charged; uniformly; desired; voltage; created; main; pulser; charge; auxiliary; discharges; external; sources; ionization; typical; configuration; utilizes; 10; torr; argon; adjacent; highly uniform; transparent electrode; ionized gas; conducting electrode; gas region; discharge region; voltage pulse; beam passing; pressure gas; laser beam; glow discharge; external source; energy laser; region adjacent; plasma formed; electrode comprises; desired voltage; optical switch; external sources; gas electrode; voltage pulser; optical switches; /359/313/

Citation Formats

Goldhar, Julius, and Henesian, Mark A. Transparent electrode for optical switch. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Goldhar, Julius, & Henesian, Mark A. Transparent electrode for optical switch. United States.
Goldhar, Julius, and Henesian, Mark A. 1986. "Transparent electrode for optical switch". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866002.
@article{osti_866002,
title = {Transparent electrode for optical switch},
author = {Goldhar, Julius and Henesian, Mark A.},
abstractNote = {A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 1
}

Patent:

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  • A transparent electrode assembly is described for applying an electric field through an electro-optic crystal comprising: a pair of regions of low pressure gas adjacent the crystal at opposing faces through which an optical beam is propagated through the crystal; means operatively connected to the regions of low pressure gas to ionize the gas to produce an optically transparent conducting plasma adjacent to the faces of the crystal; means operatively connected to the regions to apply an electrical potential across the pair of plasma regions.
  • The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.
  • Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.
  • An amorphous semiconductor solar cell is disclosed which comprises a glass substrate and a transparent electrode coated on the substrate. The device also comprises an amorphous semiconductor layer on the transparent electrode, and a rear electrode on the amorphous layer, wherein the average grain diameter of the surface of the transparent electrode ranges from 0.1 ..mu..m to 2.5 ..mu..m.