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Title: Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

Abstract

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportionmore » of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
861420
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-540-38493
Journal ID: ISSN 0148--7191; TRN: US200601%%858
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-99-GO10337
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 1; Related Information: SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2193; Posted with permission. Presented at the 2005 SAE Brasil Fuels & Lubricants Meeting; Rio de Janiero, Brazil; May 2005
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACETALDEHYDE; ALDEHYDES; BENZENE; CARBON MONOXIDE; DIESEL ENGINES; ENGINES; ETHANOL; FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS; HYDROCARBONS; KETONES; LUBRICANTS; NITROGEN; OXIDES; PARTICULATES; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; SULFUR; Transportation

Citation Formats

Merritt, P M, Ulmet, V, McCormick, R L, Mitchell, W E, and Baumgard, K J. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.4271/2005-01-2193.
Merritt, P M, Ulmet, V, McCormick, R L, Mitchell, W E, & Baumgard, K J. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends. United States. https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-2193
Merritt, P M, Ulmet, V, McCormick, R L, Mitchell, W E, and Baumgard, K J. Tue . "Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends". United States. https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-2193. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/861420.
@article{osti_861420,
title = {Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends},
author = {Merritt, P M and Ulmet, V and McCormick, R L and Mitchell, W E and Baumgard, K J},
abstractNote = {Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.},
doi = {10.4271/2005-01-2193},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/861420}, journal = {},
issn = {0148--7191},
number = ,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {2005},
month = {11}
}

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